TYPES OF VERTEBRAE AND THEIR FUNCTION


TYPES OF VERTEBRAE

THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON IS MADE UP OF THE GIRDLES (PECTORAL AND PELVIC GIRDLES) AS WELL AS THE BONES OF THE LIMBS, FORE LIMBS AND HIND LIMBS


FEATURES OF THE VERTEBRAE AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
I just treated the skeletal system of living things in my previous article and I hope you had time to read it if not then follow this link TYPES OF SKELETON.
SO in this article, I am going to be treating the various types of vertebrae as stated earlier in my last article. And the following are the types of vertebrae






1.

CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

The cervical vertebrae are found in the neck region. In man for example, the first cervical vertebra is called the Atlas while the second vertebra is called the Axis. The third vertebra to the seventh bones are the normal cervical bones.

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ATLAS VERTEBRA

i. The atlas vertebra has a large neural canal
ii. The atlas vertebra has a flat and broad transverse process
iii. The neural spine within the atlas is very short and sometimes absent
iv. The centrum is absent in the atlas
v. The atlas has a vertebrarterial for the passage of blood vessel


FUNCTION OF THE ATLAS

The function of the atlas as a vertebra is as follows
i. It allows the head to nod on it.
ii. It permits nodding of the head
iii. It holds the head firmly and allow for turning of the head

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THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AXIS

The Axis has a major part to play in the skeletal system of mammals mostly humans. So the most profound characteristics if the Axis are as follows
i. The axis has a broad and flat centrum
ii. The axis articulates with the atlas through the odontoid process
iii. The axis has a large, flattened neural spine
iv. The transverse process is reduced to a pin-like structure in in an axis
v. The axis has a vertebrarterial canal




FUNCTION OF THE AXIS

The function of the Axis are as follows
i. The Axis allows the head to be turned easily as in twisting the of the neck or the head


2.

THORACIC VERTEBRAE

The thoracic vertebrae are found in the chest region. In man, they are twelve in number.
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THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THORACIC VERTEBRAE

I. The thoracic vertebra has a long and prominent neural spine which projects upward and backwards
II. The thoracic vertebra has a pair of short transverse process
III. There is the presence of demi-facets and articular surfaces for the attachment of ribs
IV. There is a large neural canal and neural arch
V. The Axis has a large cylindrical centrum


FUNCTIONS OF THE THORACIC VERTEBRAE

The functions of the vertebrae are as follows
i. One of the functions of the thoracic vertebrae is that it aids the attachment of the ribs
ii. Muscles of the shoulder and back are attached to neural spines of the thoracic vertebrae
iii. The thoracic vertebrae assists in breathing alongside with the ribs




3.

THE LUMBER VERTEBRAE

The lumber vertebrae are found in the upper abdominal region. In man for example, they are five in number. They


THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LUMBER VERTEBRAE

The characteristics of the lumber vertebrae as follows
i. The lumber vertebrae has a large, flattened transverse process
ii. The lumber vertebrae has a broad and flat neural spine
iii. The lumber vertebrae has a large and thick centrum
iv. The lumber vertebrae has a well-developed pre and post zygapophyses
v. The lumber vertebrae has two extra projection called as the (anapophysis)and (metapophysis) which serves for the attachment of abdominal muscles

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE LUMBER VERTEBRAE

The following are the functions of the lumber vertebrae
i. The lumber vertebrae provides attachment for the abdominal muscles
ii. The lumber vertebrae bears a considerable weight of the body


4.

THE SACRAL VERTEBRAE

What is the sacral vertebrae in the skeletal system? The sacral vertebrae is found in the lower abdominal region. In man, they are five in number. They fused together to form a structure called sacrum

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SACRAL VERTEBRAE

The characteristics of the sacral vertebrae are as follows
i. The sacral vertebrae has a narrow neural canal
ii. The sacral vertebrae has a neural spine which is reduced to a notch
iii. The sacral vertebrae has very large centrum
iv. The first sacral vertebrae has a pair of transverse process is large and winged-like, but the others are attached to the muscle of the back
v. The first sacral vertebrae has a small neural canal which gets smaller as it enters the other vertebrae


THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SACRAL VERTEBRAE

i. The sacral vertebrae are joined to the pelvic girdles to provide support, and strength


5.

THE CAUDAL VERTEBRAE

The caudal vertebrae are found in the region of some vertebrates. They decrease in size from the sacrum backwards. In man, they are four in number. They are fused together to form a structure called coccyx which does not project from the body.



CHARACTERISTICS OF CAUDAL VERTEBRAE

i. The caudal vertebrae no neural spine
ii. The caudal vertebrae as it stands has no neural canal
iii. The caudal vertebrae appears as a solid, rectangular mass of bone
iv. THE CAUDAL VERTEBRAE HAS NO TRANSVERSE




THE FUNCTION OF THE CAUDAL VERTEBRAE

The functions of the caudal vertebrae are listed as follows
i. The caudal vertebrae supports the tail
ii. The caudal vertebrae provides attachment tor tail muscles



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88. PH SOIL TEST
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164.
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165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


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