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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

NUTRITION IN ANIMALS


NUTRITION IN ANIMALS

On this topic, you will learn about
What is food substance
List the types of heterotrophic nutrition
Types of mammalian teeth
Feeding mode of the holozoic mode of nutrition
What makes a balanced diet
The structure of the mammalian tooth
Mode of feeding in Amoeba
The digestive system of Amoeba
The digestive system of cockroach, grasshopper and birds
1 Dentition mode of nutrition







FOOD SUBSTANCES

What is a food substance?
Food substances refers to the materials or substances as food eaten by animals to energy needed to carry out survival activities.
These food substances are carbohydrates, protein, mineral salts, fats and oil, water and roughages.
All living organisms need food for their survival and daily activities. Plants can manufacture their own food through a process called photosynthesis, hence they are called autotrophs. On the other hand, animals cannot manufacture their own food so they solely depends on food manufactured by the plants, hence they are called heterotrophs.

Animals sometimes are classified according the type of food they eat or mode of nutrition. On these bases, animals are classified in the following categories
1. CARNIVOROUS ANIMALS OR CARNIVORES
These groups of animals mainly feed on flesh that is to say feed on other animals. Animals in these group are lion, dog, lizard, snake and cat.
2. HERBIVOROUS ANIMALS
These group of animals feed on plants only. Their teeth are designed for chewing grasses and herbs. Examples of these are goat, sheep, cattle and rabbit









3. OMNIVOROUS ANIMALS
These group of animals feed on plants and animals. In most cases, they can eat anything edible. Examples of these are man, man and pig


CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD SUBSTANCES
All the food eaten or taken by animals can be classified or divided into seven groups. These food substances are
i. CARBOHYDRATES
ii. PROTEIN
iii. FATS AND OIL
iv. MINERAL SALTS
v. WATER AND ROUGHAGES
vi. VITAMINS

THE COMPOSITION, sources and functions of these food substances are explain in the following ways


CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrate is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1 as in the case with water. They have a general formula of Cx(HxOx)
SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATES,
THE MAIN SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATE INCLUDES YAM, CASAVA, POTATO, RICE, MILLET AND BREAD.

TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES
There are three types of carbohydrates, they are
1. MONOSACCHARIDES OR SIMPLE SUGARS
They are the simplest sugars and have only one unit of simple sugars are represented by the formula C6H12O6, examples are glucose, fructose and galactose.

2. DISACCHARIDES OR REDUCING SUGARS
THESE CONTAIN TWO UNITS OF SIMPLE SUGARS AND ARE REPRESENTED BY THE FORMULA C12H12O12. EXAMPLES ARE SUCROSE, MALTOSE AND LACTOSE


3. POLYSACCHARIDES COMPLEX SUGARS
These consists of more than two simple sugars or at least more than three simple sugars joined together. They are represented by the general formula (C6 H10O5)n, where n represent a large number. Examples are starch, cellulose, chitin and glycogen.

EXCESS CARBOHYDRATE IS STORED IN THE BODY AS GLYCOGEN-ANIMAL FATS INH THE MUSCLES AND LIVER, WHICH CAN BE CONVERTED BACK TO GLUCOSE DURING STARVATION

IMPORTANCE OF CARBOHYDRATES
The various importance of carbohydrates are listed in the following ways
i. Carbohydrate provides energy required by animals for daily activities
ii. Carbohydrate provides heat during its oxidation, used in maintaining the body temperature
iii. Carbohydrates are used in some ways to build body parts like the exoskeleton of arthropods
iv. Mucus which an important lubricant in our bodies, is made up of carbohydrates

PROTEINS

Proteins are complex molecules and are made of smaller units called amino acids. Proteins has to be digested to AMINO ACIDS before they can be absorbed into the bodies of animals.
The breaking down of proteins during digestion takes place in the following ways or stages
Protein ====peptones====polypeptides===amino acids

COMPOSITION OF PROTEIN
Protein is composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and most often phosphorus and sulphur.

SOURCES OF PROTEIN

Animal sources of proteins are milk, egg, fish, cheese, meat and chicken
Plant sources of protein are beans, groundnut and soya-beans



IMPORTANCE OF PROTEIN

i. Protein is used for the growth of the young ones
ii. Protein is used for the repair of worn-out tissues of the body or cells
iii. Proteins aids reproduction
iv. Protein is used for the production of enzymes
v. Protein is also used for the production of hormones
vi. Protein is used for tissue and cell formation which then results in body building or growth


FATS AND OIL

Fats and oil are also called LIPIDS. Fats are solid lipids at room temperature. They are hydrolyzed during digestion of fatty acids and glycerol which can be absorbed into the lymphatic system.

COMPOSITION OF FATS AND OIL
Fats and oil are composed of carbon, hydrogen and little oxygen


SOURCES OF FATS AND OIL
The major sources of fats and oil are palm oil, soya bean oil, melon oil, groundnut, butter, lard, margarine and cheese and fish oil

IMPORTANCE OF FATS AND OIL
The importance of fats and oil are as follows
i. Fats and oil provides more energy to animals than carbohydrates
ii. Fats supply essential fatty acids to animals
iii. Fats and oil provides fat soluble vitamins
iv. Fats and oil help in the maintenance of body temperature










MINERAL SALTS
Not with general view but with definite accuracy, animals need or require various mineral salts for metabolic activities within the body.
Except for sodium chloride which is table salt, and a few medicines like iron tablets which can be taken directly by man, other mineral salts are usually taken in minute quantity through the food we eat. Lack of any of these minerals in a certain degree, will result in nutritional deficiency.

CLASSES OF MINERAL SALTS
The various classes of mineral salts include the following
i. Calcium
ii. Phosphorus
iii. Magnesium
iv. Potassium
v. Sulphur
vi. Sodium
vii. Chlorine
viii. Iron
ix. Iodine
x. Manganese
xi. Fluorine
xii. Copper and
xiii. Cobalt


Here is a chat of the sources, functions, deficiency and symptoms of any of the afore mentioned mineral salts

MINERAL
CALCIUM
Sources===== MILK, CHEESE, EGG AND FISH




You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING





118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION