WHAT IS SYMBIOTIC NUTRITION?


SYMBIOTIC NUTRITION

What is symbiotic nutrition?
Symbiotic nutrition is a type of nutrition in which two organisms of different species called SYMBIONTS live together and derive nutrients or food from each other.
In symbiotic nutrition, both organisms gain from such association and none is harmed. This type of nutrition called symbiotic nutrition while the association between the two organisms in which both derive benefits is called SYMBIOSIS

Apart from the nutritional benefits, the symbionts can derive other benefits like protection, reproduction shelter during such association.

Examples of organisms that exhibits symbiotic nutrition are
1. Nitrogen fixation bacteria and root nodules of leguminous plants
2. Algae and Fungi in a lichen
3. Sea anemones and hermit crabs
4. Termites and protozoa living together in the gut







1.

NITROGEN FIXATION BACTERIA AND ROOT NODULES OF LEGUMINOUS PLANTS

a typical example of symbiotic nutrition and association is the one between nitrogen fixing bacteria, Rhizobium spp and the root nodules of leguminous plants.
The bacteria is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen directly into the plant while the plant provide shelter and food for the bacteria.


ALGAE AND FUNGI IN LICHEN

a LICHEN is usually made up of two organisms, a fungus and a unicellular Alga, living closely together and this an example of symbiotic nutrition. The thallus or plant body of a lichen consists mostly of fungal hyphae, with alga cells embedded in them. The alga cells are arranged in a definite layer. The green alga manufactures food for both plants, while the fungus protects the alga and absorbs water from the surroundings thereby making the symbiotic nutrition process complete.

2.
3.

SEA ANEMONES AND CRABS

in this type of symbiotic nutrition, the sea anemone is known to attach itself to the empty shell in which the hermit crab is found. Pieces of food left by the hermit crab is what the sea anemone eats. The hermit is protected from predators that would have attacked or eaten it as the sting of the sea anemone keep them away from the hermit crab
4. TERMITES AND PROTOZOA LIVING TOGETHER IN THE GUT:

SYMBIOTIC NUTRITION


What is symbiotic nutrition?
Symbiotic nutrition is a type of nutrition in which two organisms of different species called SYMBIONTS live together and derive nutrients or food from each other.
In symbiotic nutrition, both organisms gain from such association and none is harmed. This type of nutrition called symbiotic nutrition while the association between the two organisms in which both derive benefits is called SYMBIOSIS


Apart from the nutritional benefits, the symbionts can derive other benefits like protection, reproduction shelter during such association.

Examples of organisms that exhibits symbiotic nutrition are
1. Nitrogen fixation bacteria and root nodules of leguminous plants
2. Algae and Fungi in a lichen
3. Sea anemones and hermit crabs
4. Termites and protozoa living together in the gut


1. NITROGEN FIXATION BACTERIA AND ROOT NODULES OF LEGUMINOUS PLANTS: a typical example of symbiotic nutrition and association is the one between nitrogen fixing bacteria, Rhizobium spp and the root nodules of leguminous plants.
The bacteria is able to fix atmospheric nitrogen directly into the plant while the plant provide shelter and food for the bacteria.


ALGAE AND FUNGI IN LICHEN: a LICHEN is usually made up of two organisms, a fungus and a unicellular Alga, living closely together and this an example of symbiotic nutrition. The thallus or plant body of a lichen consists mostly of fungal hyphae, with alga cells embedded in them. The alga cells are arranged in a definite layer. The green alga manufactures food for both plants, while the fungus protects the alga and absorbs water from the surroundings thereby making the symbiotic nutrition process complete.







2.
3. SEA ANEMONES AND CRABS: in this type of symbiotic nutrition, the sea anemone is known to attach itself to the empty shell in which the hermit crab is found. Pieces of food left by the hermit crab is what the sea anemone eats. The hermit is protected from predators that would have attacked or eaten it as the sting of the sea anemone keep them away from the hermit crab
4. TERMITES AND PROTOZOA LIVING TOGETHER IN THE GUT:

The following are related link and posts to this topic

Please share if you find our article good
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150.
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155.
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE










HOW TO TEST FOR FOOD SUBSTANCES


HOW TO TEST FOR FOOD SUBSTANCES
The chart below represents the tests for various classes of food substances such as starch, protein, simple sugars, reducing sugars, fats and oil and water.
1. HOW TO TEST FOR PROTEINS IN FOOD
(a) The Biuret’s test.
Process
i. Take a small quantity of milk or egg white solution
ii. Add 1cm of protein and sodium hydroxide and 1% copper (11) solution in drops
iii. Shake the mixture after each drop.
iv. Do not heat

OBSERVATION
The mixture will turn purple or violet colour.
INFERENCE
Protein is present
(b) Millon’s test
i. Put 3cm of protein food inside a test tube, e.g. fresh egg white
ii. Add 3cm of Millon’s reagent
iii. Warm the mixture in a water bath for few minutes

OBSERVATION
A red precipitate would appear

INFERENCE

Protein is present






(c) XANTHOPROTEIC TEST

i. Put 2cm of egg white or milk solution in a test tube
ii. Add about 1cm of concentrated trioxonitrate (v) acid and 3cm of ammonium hydroxide solution
iii. Heat the solution
iv. Allow it to cool down

OBSERVATION

A white precipitate forms, which turns yellow on heating. On cooling the content after adding excess NH4OH, the solution becomes orange in colour

INFERENCE
Protein is present

2. FOOD TEST FOR STARCH

I. collect any starch material like bread or yam
II. Add a few drops of dilute Iodine solution

OBSERVATION
I. The colour will change to blue-black
INFERENCE
Starch is present


3. FOOD TEST FOR SIMPLE SUGARS e.g. glucose and fructose

i. Put a small quantity of glucose solution in a test tube
ii. Add 2% Benedict solution
iii. Boil the mixture for 4-6 minutes

OBSERVATION

A brick-red or orange precipitate is seen

INFERENCE
Glucose is present











4. FOOD TEST FOR REDUCING SUGARS e.g. sucrose, lactose or maltose

i. Put a small quantity of sucrose solution in a test tube
ii. Add a few drops of Benedict’s solution or Fehling solution
iii. Add a few drops of Hel:
iv. Boil the mixture for a few minutes
Dilute Hcl and boiling will help to hydrolyze the sucrose to simple sugars e.g. glucose

OBSERVATION
A yellow precipitate is observed

INFERENCE
Sucrose or non-reducing sugars is present



5. TEST FOR FATS AND OILS

(a) Translucent test
i. Drop oil on a spot on a filter paper
ii. Observe the spot against a source of light
OBSERVATION
The drop of oil becomes more translucent. Which means it allow more light to pass through it when held in front of it

INFERENCE
The translucency shows the presence of fats and oils


(b) SUDAN (iii) TEST

i. Add a few drops of Sudan (iii) solution to in a test tube
ii. Then boil the solution
OBSERVATION
i. A red colouration appears before boiling.
ii. A black precipitate is form on boiling

INFERENCE

Fats and oil is present


(6) TEST FOR WATER
i. Dip a blue, dry cobalt chloride paper in a food item
OBSERVATION
The colour of the paper changes from blue to pink

INFERENCE

Water is present





agricultural biology topics
You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER





88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES

152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

WATER AS A CLASS OF FOOD IN THE BODY


WATER AS A CLASS OF FOOD IN THE BODY

What is water?
Water is composed of two elements known as hydrogen and oxygen. It is two molecules of hydrogen to a molecule of oxygen in percentage.
We cannot fully comprehend the fullness of life without the importance of water to living things. There is this adage in Nigeria that say water has no enemy. How true this word is can be seen right through the pages of the bible and our everyday activities. Historically, water serves as a means or instrument of purification. Although the scope of this article will not delve deep into the characters of a good water, uses of water at home, or the general importance of water to farmers in the scope of agriculture science.
Water can be hard or soft.
Water contain a lot of micro living organisms that can only be seen with the aid of a microscope.
For the intent of this article, the body of animals mostly humans consists of at least 70% water. Water can be found in the natural and artificial state and can be found everywhere. In fact, water is termed as the pivot of life itself. No water no life.
Let us take a look at the availability of water and its sources






SOURCES OF WATER

Sources of water available to animals include metabolic water from food, drinking water from tap, rivers, rain water and ponds.

IMPORTANCE OF WATER
The essential importance of water to animals are listed in the following ways
i. Water is required for metabolic activities in the body
ii. Water is necessary for the digestion of food
iii. Water can be used for the maintenance of body temperature
iv. Water is the main components of plants and animals. It forms about 75% of the body of humans
v. Water can act as solvent for soluble food substances in digestion
vi. Water serves as a medium of transportation for nutrients
vii. Water constitutes a greater part of blood
viii. Water helps to maintain the osmotic content of the body tissues
ix. Water is the basis of secretion from endocrine glands

You can read about the water cycle here
1. Water cycle
2. Maintenance of soil water
3. Protein as a class of food
4. Carbohydrates as a class of food
5. Classes of minerals and deficiency symptoms
6. Classes of vitamins and deficiency symptoms
7. Types of carbohydrates


ROUGHAGES
Roughages consists of indigestible fibrous materials derived from vegetables, fruits, carbohydrates and proteins.
Roughages provide bulk to the intestinal content thereby stimulating the movement of bowel.
Lack of Roughages in the diet can cause constipation.
Roughages are easily digested by micro-organisms in the intestinal tract.










Here is a typical examples of the classes of food
1. VITAMINS=====fruits, vegetables, egg, milk, liver oil etc.
2. FAT=======groundnut, melon, butter, margarine, palm oil, soya bean oil and cod liver oil
3. WATER============Water in plants, water in animals, water in drinks, beverages and food
4. MINERAL SALTS========vegetables, fruits, bones, egg and table salt
5. CARBOHYDRATES=======Rice, bread, millet, cassava, yam, cocoyam, potato etc.
6. PROTEIN=========MEAT, BEANS, GROUNDNUT ETC.


You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS





125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION





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