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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS


FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS

What are holozoic organisms?

Holozoic organisms are organisms that feeds on other organisms or solid organic food substances synthesized by green plants.

There are five modifications and mechanisms of feeding associated with some organisms these feeding mechanisms include

Holozoic nutrition (Greek: holo-whole ; zoikos-of animals) is a type of heterotrophic nutrition that is characterized by the internalization (ingestion) and internal processing of gaseous, liquid or solid food particles.[1] Protozoa, such as amoebas, and most of the free living animals,such as animals, exhibit this type of nutrition.

Holozoic nutrition

the energy and organic building blocks are obtained by ingesting and then digesting other organisms or pieces of other organisms, including blood and decaying organic matter. This contrasts with holophytic nutrition, in which energy and organic building blocks are obtained through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, and with saprozoic nutrition, in which digestive enzymes are released externally and the resulting monomers (small organic molecules) are absorbed directly from the environment.








There are

several stages of holozoic nutrition,

which often occur in separate compartments within an organism (such as the stomach and intestines):

Ingestion:

In animals, this is merely takes place by engulfing the food totally in the mouth. In protozoa, this most commonly occurs through phagocytosis.


1.

ABSORBING MECHANISMS:

TAPEWORM
A typical example of an organism possessing the sucking or absorbing mechanism is the tapeworm.
The tapeworm is an endoparasites which carries out parasitic feeding on its host like humans. The tapeworm has no mouth but can only absorb digested food nutrients from the intestine of its host.
The body of the tapeworm is modified and adapted for parasitic feeding as follows
i. The tapeworm has no elementary canal hence food is absorbed through its entire body surface.
ii. The tapeworm has hooks and suckers which are used to attach itself to the wall of the intestine of the host to avoid dislodgement.
iii. The body of a tapeworm has thick cuticle which resists digestive enzymes of the host
iv. The tapeworm’s flat body surface provides a large surface area for the absorption of already digested food.
v. The entire body surface of a tapeworm is used for the absorption of food

BITING AND CHEWING MECHANISM:

2.

biting and chewing

E.g. grasshoppers and cockroach

The grasshopper and cockroach has mouth parts that are adapted for biting and chewing.
These insect types have four different mouth parts which are modified or adapted for biting and chewing food. These mouth parts are
i. LABRUM OR UPPER LIP: THE GRASSHOPPER HAS UPPER LIP OR LABRUM WHICH PREVENTS FOOD FROM FALLING OUT
ii. MANDIBLES: the grasshopper or the cockroach has or possesses a pair of mandibles which are heavy, toothed and jaw-like structure used for cutting and chewing food materials
iii. MAXILAE: the grasshopper or cockroach has a pair of Maxillae which serves as biting blade. This breaks down the food which the mandibles have chewed into smaller particles
iv. LABIUM: the labium also known as the lower lip prevents the wastage of food from the mouth
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION






40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE



3.

SUCKING MECHANISMS


There are three popular organisms which exhibits sucking mechanism. These organisms are mosquito, butterfly and housefly. They insects have different modifications of mouth marts adapted for feeding on food through the mechanism of sucking.
So let’s treat them one after the other
THE MOSQUITO
i. Mosquito as an example of sucking insect: the mosquito possesses a piercing mouth part called the proboscis. The proboscis is used for sucking the blood of man and other animals
ii. The mouth parts altogether form a strong stylet capable of penetrating into the skin to suck
iii. The stylet except the labium is sharp and pointed to ease penetration into the skin
iv. The mouth of a typical mosquito can produce saliva to prevent clotting of blood while it is being sucked in
v. The mosquito has the ability to fold back the labium easily so as to allow the stylet to perform its work of penetration of the skin to suck blood

SUCKING MECHANISM OF THE BUTTERFLY
The butterfly feeds on liquid food like nectars of flowers. The butterfly has its mouth parts modified for sucking in the following ways
i. The butterfly possesses a long coiled proboscis used for sucking nectars of flowers
ii. The butterfly as an insect is capable of recoiling the long proboscis under its head when not in use.
iii. There is a nonfunctioning of the other mouth parts due to the type of food taken by the insect


SUCKING MECHANISM OF THE HOUSEFLY

The housefly mainly feds on liquid food materials. It has mouth parts modified for sucking in food in the following ways
i. The housefly possesses enlarged labella which are sucking structures for sucking liquid food
ii. The housefly has the ability to feed on solid food like SUGAR by pouring out its saliva to change the food to a liquid state.
iii. The housefly has a sucking mechanism called SPONGING in which the mouth is placed on the liquid food and it will start to rush into the mouth
iv. The labella of the housefly have fine channels which aid rapid absorption of liquid food into the mouth

4.

THE GRINDING MECHANISMS

Grinding mechanism is common among mammals e.g. man, goat, sheep, lion etc. these animals are capable of grinding the food before swallowing. The grinding of food is aided by the presence of hard and strong teeth made of enamel and dentine.
The animals are adapted to the grinding mechanisms by the following
i. They possess different types or sets of teeth
ii. The teeth are strong and hard to withstand biting, chewing or grinding and cracking of solid food like bones
iii. The possess incisors which have sharp and flat edged used for biting off bits of food
iv. Animals have pointed canine teeth used for tearing solid food
v. There is the presence of pre-molars and molars with undulating and wide surface to enable grinding of food
vi. The absence of front teeth or incisors in herbivores like sheep is a special adaptation as it helps to grip the grasses during feeding by the animal.


5.

TRAPPING AND ABSORBING MECHANISM


The trapping and absorbing mechanism are common among insectivorous or carnivorous plants such as bladderwort and sundew.
The bladderwort and sundew have structures which enable them to adapt to this mode of feeding or nutrition
i. Sundew for example is capable of trapping insect by undergoing nastic movement in response to touch from the body of the insect
ii. The sundew leaf has long hairs which carry digestive glands
iii. Insect landing on these hairs causes other hairs to coil over it
iv. The sundew is capable of secreting a fluid rich in enzymes to digest the insect externally
v. The protein so synthesized is easily absorbed by the carnivorous plant into its body


Here are some related post on the subject of nutrition and modes of feeding in living organisms

1. Modes of nutrition in animals
2. Saprophytic nutrition
3. Parasitic nutrition
4. Forages and farm animal nutrition
5. Water as a food substance
6. Carnivorous nutrition in plants
7. Endoparasites and Ectoparasites feeding modes
8. Holozoic mode of nutrition
9. Heterotrophic mode of nutrition
10. Autotrophic nutrition
11. Chemosynthetic nutrition
12. Importance of balance diet
13. What is Kwashiokor?
14. How to test for food
15. Vitamin deficiency symptoms
16. Mineral deficiency symptoms
17. Types of carbohydrates
18. Food substances
19. Classification of food substances
20. Growth in living organisms
21. Types joints
22. The human skeleton
23. The skeletal system
24. The vertebrates and invertebrates
25. Exoskeleton
26. Appendicular skeleton
27. Topical index of all pages
28. Osmosis
29. Diffusion
30. Turgidity
31. The cell and its environment
32. Mitosis and meiosis


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