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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

HOW TO TEST FOR FOOD SUBSTANCES


HOW TO TEST FOR FOOD SUBSTANCES
The chart below represents the tests for various classes of food substances such as starch, protein, simple sugars, reducing sugars, fats and oil and water.
1. HOW TO TEST FOR PROTEINS IN FOOD
(a) The Biuret’s test.
Process
i. Take a small quantity of milk or egg white solution
ii. Add 1cm of protein and sodium hydroxide and 1% copper (11) solution in drops
iii. Shake the mixture after each drop.
iv. Do not heat

OBSERVATION
The mixture will turn purple or violet colour.
INFERENCE
Protein is present
(b) Millon’s test
i. Put 3cm of protein food inside a test tube, e.g. fresh egg white
ii. Add 3cm of Millon’s reagent
iii. Warm the mixture in a water bath for few minutes

OBSERVATION
A red precipitate would appear

INFERENCE

Protein is present






(c) XANTHOPROTEIC TEST

i. Put 2cm of egg white or milk solution in a test tube
ii. Add about 1cm of concentrated trioxonitrate (v) acid and 3cm of ammonium hydroxide solution
iii. Heat the solution
iv. Allow it to cool down

OBSERVATION

A white precipitate forms, which turns yellow on heating. On cooling the content after adding excess NH4OH, the solution becomes orange in colour

INFERENCE
Protein is present

2. FOOD TEST FOR STARCH

I. collect any starch material like bread or yam
II. Add a few drops of dilute Iodine solution

OBSERVATION
I. The colour will change to blue-black
INFERENCE
Starch is present


3. FOOD TEST FOR SIMPLE SUGARS e.g. glucose and fructose

i. Put a small quantity of glucose solution in a test tube
ii. Add 2% Benedict solution
iii. Boil the mixture for 4-6 minutes

OBSERVATION

A brick-red or orange precipitate is seen

INFERENCE
Glucose is present











4. FOOD TEST FOR REDUCING SUGARS e.g. sucrose, lactose or maltose

i. Put a small quantity of sucrose solution in a test tube
ii. Add a few drops of Benedict’s solution or Fehling solution
iii. Add a few drops of Hel:
iv. Boil the mixture for a few minutes
Dilute Hcl and boiling will help to hydrolyze the sucrose to simple sugars e.g. glucose

OBSERVATION
A yellow precipitate is observed

INFERENCE
Sucrose or non-reducing sugars is present



5. TEST FOR FATS AND OILS

(a) Translucent test
i. Drop oil on a spot on a filter paper
ii. Observe the spot against a source of light
OBSERVATION
The drop of oil becomes more translucent. Which means it allow more light to pass through it when held in front of it

INFERENCE
The translucency shows the presence of fats and oils


(b) SUDAN (iii) TEST

i. Add a few drops of Sudan (iii) solution to in a test tube
ii. Then boil the solution
OBSERVATION
i. A red colouration appears before boiling.
ii. A black precipitate is form on boiling

INFERENCE

Fats and oil is present


(6) TEST FOR WATER
i. Dip a blue, dry cobalt chloride paper in a food item
OBSERVATION
The colour of the paper changes from blue to pink

INFERENCE

Water is present





agricultural biology topics
You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER





88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES

152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

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