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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE Farm mechanization has the following advantages 1. ...

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MODES OF NUTRITION AND TYPES OF PARASITIC NUTRITION


MODES OF NUTRITION

All living things or living organisms are capable of carrying out different modes of nutrition. However, the modes of nutrition can be grouped into two major classes which are refers to as heterotrophic nutrition and autotrophic






AUTOTROPHIC MODE OF NUTRITION
Here, let’s treat the autotrophic nutrition. The definition of autotrophic mode of nutrition. The word auto and trophic is in the sense that auto means anything that can initiate its own activities without being pushed by external force.
So Autotrophic mode of nutrition is the type of nutrition in which organisms are able to manufacture their own food.
Therefore organisms which can manufacture their own food are called autotrophs.
Autotrophic mode of nutrition is further divided into two groups. These are holophytic or photosynthetic nutrition and chemo-synthetic nutrition

i. HOLOPHYTIC (PHOTOSYNTHETIC) NUTRITION

Holophytic nutrition is the type of nutrition in which all green plants are able to manufacture their own food making use of carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight.
This is called Photosynthesis. So what then is this photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis is a process whereby green plants makes their own food using carbon dioxide in the presence and water.
Green plants derive the energy for making this food from the sunlight.

This energy is usually trapped by chlorophyll.
Examples of organisms that can carry out or exhibit photosynthetic nutrition are all green plants such as flowering plants, spirogyra, Euglena, blue-green algae etc.









ii. CHEMOSYNTHETIC NUTRITION

Chemosynthetic nutrition is another mode of nutrition in which certain bacteria are able to synthesize organic compounds from simple inorganic materials such as carbon (IV) oxide, ammonia, water or nitrate to manufacture their food.
The energy used for the synthesis comes from the oxidation of the inorganic materials or chemicals, hence the process is called CHEMOSYNTHESIS. A typical examples of this mode of nutrition are
i. Nitrosomonas===this converts ammonia to nitrate
ii. Nitrobacter==this converts nitrites to nitrate



HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION
This is the type of nutrition in which organisms cannot manufacture their own food but depends on plants directly or indirectly which is called AUTOTROPHS
Most animals, protozoan, fungi and some bacteria belongs to this group.
Heterotrophic nutrition is also sub-divided into the following group or types. Though nutrition is a little deep but with patience as I dig deep into the subject of nutrition below you will understand the totality of nutrition and its various sub-groups


i. HOLOZOIC NUTRITION
Holozoic nutrition involves the feeding on other organisms or solid organic substances synthesized by green plants.
The organisms ingest, digest and assimilate these food into their bodies. Typical examples of organisms that exhibits this type of nutrition are as follows
1. Carnivores, animals like Cat, Lions, dogs and all other animals that feed on flesh
2. Herbivores, like sheep, goats and rabbits that feed on grasses and plants
3. Omnivores, like man and pigs. This type of animals feed on flesh, vegetables or plants
4. Scavengers, animals in this group are vulture and hyena which feed on dead animals


ii. PARASITIC NUTRITION
This is the type of nutrition in which certain organisms feed on other organisms in order to derive energy from it. This mode of nutrition is called parasitic mode of nutrition while the association is called PARASITISM

PARASITISM is an association between two organisms, usually of different species in which one is called the parasite gains from the association and the other called the HOST is harmed or suffer loss.
Examples of parasites are

1. Animal parasites like Tapeworm (Tania Solium), plasmodium, roundworms, liver fluke, tick, lice, fleas, bugs, leeches, aphids, body louse, tick, guinea worm and hookworm
2. PLANT PRASITES like dodder and mistletoe

ANIMAL PARASITES ARE CLASSIFIED AS ENDO-PARASITE AND ECTO-PARASITE, WHICH ARE AS FOLLOWS
I. ECTOPARASITES

Ecto-parasite are parasites which live on the body of their hosts. In other words, they live outside the body of their host from where they derive their food and shelter.
Examples ecto-parasite are flea, body louse, bed bug, tick, aphid and lice. Bed bugs usually infest man at homes. They can easily spread from one person to another-bed bugs
Lice and fleas can be found on cattle and any other animals.
Tick mostly infest cattle and dogs.

Aphids and cotton stainer are Ecto-parasite of plants


iii. ENDOPARASITES
What is endoparasites? Endoparasites are parasites which live in the body of the hosts such as man and other animals. Examples of endoparasites are
1. TAPEWORM (TAENIA SOLIUM): Tapeworm is associated with pigs which are the secondary host and man which is the primary host.
It has a body that is flattened tape-like. The head of a tapeworm is called scolex on which are the Restellum, hook and sucker which enable it to fasten itself to the intestine of the host. It also has a body cuticle which resists digestive enzymes of the host. Tapeworm has a flat body surface which ensures a large surface area for absorption of already digested food.
The entire body of the tapeworm consists of numerous proglottids which aids the absorption of digested food from its host.
2. LIVER FLUKE (FASCIOLA HEPATICA) the liver fluke is small type of endoparasites associated with sheep. It is common with the liver of the sheep
3. FILARIA WORM (WUCHERARIA BANCROFTI): filaria worm is a type of endoparasites associated with cattle, sheep and goat. It causes elephantiasis
4. ROUNDWORM (ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES): roundworms are a type of endoparasites associated with or commonly found in the alimentary canal of human beings and pigs. It deprives its host of food which it eats
5. GUINEA WORM (Dracunculus medinensis): the guinea worm is an endoparasites commonly found in the subcutaneous tissues from which it pushes out its head through a blister caused by it on the foot or leg of its host.


The following are related link and posts to this topic

1. Modes of nutrition in animals
2. Saprophytic nutrition
3. Parasitic nutrition
4. Forages and farm animal nutrition
5. Water as a food substance
6. Carnivorous nutrition in plants
7. Endoparasites and Ectoparasites feeding modes
8. Holozoic mode of nutrition
9. Heterotrophic mode of nutrition
10. Autotrophic nutrition
11. Chemosynthetic nutrition
12. Importance of balance diet
13. What is Kwashiokor?
14. How to test for food
15. Vitamin deficiency symptoms
16. Mineral deficiency symptoms
17. Types of carbohydrates
18. Food substances
19. Classification of food substances




1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

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