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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

VITAMINS AND THEIR DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS


VITAMINS AND THEIR DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS

WHAT ARE VITAMINS?
Vitamins are organic food substances required to by man and other animals only in small quantity or amount for normal growth and healthy development of the body.
Inadequacy or lack of any of these vitamins can lead to nutritional deficiency in animals generally.
A typical example of nutritional disease is GOITRE. The goiter is caused as a result of insufficient iodine in diet of man. Goiter is characterized by the swollen of the thyroid gland in the neck.
GROUPS OF VITAMINS
Vitamins are grouped into two main classes. They are
i. FATS SOLUBLE VITAMINS
These vitamins that are soluble only in FATS. E.g. Vitamins A, D, E and K
ii. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
These are vitamins that are soluble only in water. Examples are vitamin-B complex and Vitamin C. some members of the vitamin B-complex are vitamins B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B5 (Pantothenic), B6 (Pyridoxine), B12 (Cyano Cobalamine), Folic acid etc.

Sources, functions and deficiency symptoms of some vitamins are outlined below








VITAMINS=======SOURCES======FUNCTIONS=======DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS
1. VITAMIN A (RETINOL)

SOURCES=========liver, eggs, fish, milk, palm oil and fresh vegetables

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN A
i. Vitamin A is required for growth of the body cells and skin
ii. Vitamin A is required for proper vision and maintenance of the eye

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN A
I. LACK OF VITAMIN A CAUSES NIGHT BLINDNESS
II. LACK OF VITAMIN A REDUCES RESISTANCE TO DISEASES

2. VITAMIN B (thiamine)
SOURCES OF VITAMIN B======Yeast, unpolished rice, milk, beans and palm oil

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN B (thiamin)

i. This type of vitamin is required for proper growth
ii. Vitamin B-thiamin is required for proper functioning of heart and nervous system

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN B THIAMINE
i. Lack of vitamin B thiamin causes beriberi (a condition of loss of appetite, weight and tiredness) and Paralysis

3. VITAMIN B (RIBOFLAVIN)

SOURCES OF VITAMIN B-RIBOFLAVIN====Yeast, soya beans, eggs, milk and green vegetables


FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN==RIBOFLAVIN
I. Vitamin B riboflavin is required for growth,,
II. Vitamin B riboflavin is required for healthy skin
III. Riboflavin is required for proper functioning of the eyes
IV. Vitamin B Riboflavin is required for the formation of Co-Enzymes involved in ce4llular respiration

Deficiency symptoms of Vitamin B Riboflavin
i. Lack of vitamin B Riboflavin causes slow growth
ii. Lack of vitamin B Riboflavin in the body causes Dermatitis



4. VITAMIN B (NIACIN)
SOURCES OF VITAMIN B NIACIN===yeast, beans milk and palm oil, wine, yam and vegetables

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN B NIACIN
i. Vitamin B Niacin is needed for cellular respiration

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN B NIACIN

I. LACK OF VITAMIN B NIACIN IN THE BODY CAUSES PELLAGRA, WHICH IS A TYPE OF SKIN AND DIGESTIVE PROBLEM



5. VITAMIN B (CYNACOBALAMIN)

SOURCES OF VITAMIN B-Cyna Cobalamine===kidney, liver, fish and milk


FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN B CYNACOBALAMINE

I. This type of vitamin B is used for the production red blood cells


DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN B CYNA COBALAMINE

I. LACK OF VITAMIN B Cyna Cobalamine in the body causes Pernicious anaemia.


6. VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID)









SOURCES OF VITAMIN C====fresh fruits, and green vegetables


FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN C

i. Vitamin C aids wound healing
ii. Vitamin C helps to resist diseases and infections in the body


DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN C

I. Lack of vitamin C in the body causes SCURVEY. This characterized by bleeding gum, poor healing of wounds and low resistance to infections



7. VITAMIN D (Calciferol)


SOURCES OF VITAMIN D CALCIFEROL===fish, milk, egg, liver.
It can also be formed in the skin by sunlight



FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN D CALCIFEROL

I. Vitamin D is needed for strong bones
II. Vitamin D is essential for teeth formation and development

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN D

i. Lack of Vitamin D in the body causes Rickets and Osteomalacia



8. VITAMIN E (Egosterol)

SORCES OF VITAMIN E=====gree3n vegetables, egg, butter and liver


FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN E

i. Vitamin E promotes fertility in animals

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN E

I. Lack of Vitamin E in the body leads to reproductive failures
II. Lack of vitamin E can also cause pre-mature abortion and sterility



9. VITAMIN K (PHYLLOQUINONE)

SOURCES OF VITAMIN K=====FRESH GREEN VEGETABLES, LIKE CABBAGE AND SPINACH


FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN K

i. Vitamin K aids in blood clotting



DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN K
i. Lack of Vitamin in the body causes haemorrhages
ii. In ability of the blood to clot in time




You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL





79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION



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