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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE Farm mechanization has the following advantages 1. ...

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AIR AND ITS PROPERTIES


THE AIR WE BREATH

WHAT IS AIR?

Air is that which we breathe in and out. We can also notice air when we run or when we are riding down a hill on a bicycle.
If you look out of the window, you will notice that the leaves on the trees are moving. This movement of the leaves is due to air.


WHAT MAKES UP THE AIR?

Clear your nostrils with a handkerchief or soft tissue paper. What do you notice?
These dirts are some dusts which are in the air and which was removed by the tiny hairs in our nostrils when we were taking in air.
If you breathe out on a mirror you will notice some tiny drops of water vapour. This is also part of the air. Apart from these two—dusts and vapour, air contains other things or gases. These are oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and some other minor gases.
WHEN WE BREATHE

When we breathe in, we are taking in oxygen and nitrogen

It is only oxygen which is useful in our body. It gives us life and without it death occurs. It helps to break down the food we eat and thus give us energy and power.
When we breathe out, we expel the air which we took in. this air, however, contains plenty of poisonous carbon dioxide and little oxygen since the body used it to live. The poisonous carbon dioxide that we breathe out is used by plants to manufacture their food during photosynthesis. When plants take in carbon dioxide, they produce oxygen which we breathe in. this is why we should always have flower bottles in our houses and in the classroom.






THE ORGAN OF BREATHING

The main organ of breathing is called the lungs. It is made up of a right and left lungs. Each lung is a big bag with tiny air sacs.
From each lung arises a pipe. The two pipes (from the two lungs) join to form the windpipe. The windpipe opens into the back of the tongue.
Air usually enters the lungs through the nose. Occasionally during illness it can do so through the mouth. The nose has some hairs. These hairs filter and remove all dust before the air passes into the lungs.

THE BREATHING PROCESS

When we breathe in, oxygen in the air enters the body through the nose. It then passes into the windpipe it gets into the two lungs.
The air sacs of the lung has very many tiny blood vessels in their thin walls. The oxygen, on getting into the lungs passes through the thin walls of the air sacs into the blood in the blood vessels. From here, the oxygen is carried round the body.
As the oxygen passes into the blood, carbon dioxide in the same blood from the body passes out into the air sacs of the lungs. When we breathe out, the carbon dioxide is expelled.
Hence, during breathing, oxygen is taken in while carbon dioxide is sent out of the body.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY






30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM






112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

VENTILATION OF OUR HOUSES

If you enter a house without windows, what happens to you?
You will feel uncomfortable, hot and will start to sweat. This is because the air in the room is stagnant or is standing still. Worse, the room itself will be warm or even hot. In such situations, you will want to get out of the room quickly.
To keep our houses and our rooms cool and allow air to pass through it, we always have windows. A good and well ventilated house, has windows at opposite sides of the house, so that air entering at one end, gets out through the other.






It is dangerous to live in poorly ventilated houses.

Some houses in the villages have no windows. This makes the house to be hot, dark, stuffy and wet. If there is a sick person in such house, then, it is likely that everybody in the house will be sick. This is because as he breathes out disease germs, the others will be taking them in since there is no window for the germs to be blown out.
Diseases that can attack persons living in poorly ventilated houses are tuberculosis, measles, chicken and smallpox, cough and common cold.
The practice in villages of keeping animals such as fowls, goats and sheep at night in the same badly ventilated rooms where people sleep, is bad. These animals will compete with people for the little oxygen there is in a room. Some of these animals may be sick and they can thus

spread germs that are harmful.

It is also bad to have wood or coal fire in the sleeping rooms at night. The smoke from the fire contains poisonous gases that can kill people. This is a warning to all villagers who make coal fires to warm themselves at night during the rainy season or during harmattan.

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