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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

basic concepts of ecology


WHAT IS ECOLOGY?

Meaning of ecology
The word ecology can simply mean or be defines as the study of plants and animals in relation to their environment. Ecology is derived from a Greek word Oikos which means home or dwelling place.
In other words, ecology can be defined as a field of study which deals with the relationship of living organism with one another and with their environment in which they live.
Ecology is often described as environmental biology.
Ecology is divided into two main parts or branches. They are

a.

Autecology:

Autecology is concerned with the study of an individual organism or a specific species of organism and its environment. For example, the study of a single rat and its environment
b.

Synecology:

synecology is concerned with the study of the inter-relationship between two groups or species of organisms living together in an area. For example, the study of different organisms in a river in relation to their aquatic environment.

ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS

What is ecological concept?
The concept of ecology can be seen as the rules, policies and areas that can be studied.








Some of these ecological concept are as follows
1.

ENVIRONMENT:

the environment includes both the external and internal factors, living and non-living factors which affect an organism
2.

BIOSPHERE OR ECOSPHERE:

the biosphere or the ecosphere is the zone of the earth occupied by living organisms. It is a layer of life which exists on earth surface. The biosphere is a narrow zone where complex biological and chemical activities occur. Biosphere can be found on land, water, soil and air. It provides habitat for organisms like animals, plants and micro-organisms
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT







65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS


137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


3.

LITHOSPHERE:

the lithosphere is the solid portion of the earth. It is the outermost layer or zone of the earth crust. It is made up of rocks and mineral materials, and it represents 30% of the earth surface. The outermost layer of the landmass is made up of loose rock materials like gravel, sand and soil. Lithosphere forms the basis of all human settlement.
4.

HYDROSPHERE:

hydrosphere is the liquid or aquatic part of the earth. It covers about 70% of the earth’s crust. It holds water in various forms, which are as solid, liquid and gases respectively. Examples of hydrosphere are lakes, pond, river, streams, spring, sea, oasis and pools
5.

ATMOSPHERE:

the atmosphere is the gaseous portion of the earth. Over 99% of the atmosphere lies within 30km of the earth surface. The atmosphere contains 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.3% carbon dioxide and 0.97 rare or inert gases
6.

HABITAT:

habitat is defined as an area occupied by a biotic community. In other words, habitat is any environment in which an organism lives naturally. So a habitat is the natural home of an organism. A typical example is the habitat of fish which is water. The various types of habitat includes the following but limited (1) AQUATIC HABITAT (2) TERRESTRIAL HABITAT

CHARACTERISTICS OF A TYPICAL HABITAT

i. In a habitat, similar organisms tends to live together and associate
ii. Every habitat is affected by some environmental factors. Which is either biotic or abiotic factors.
iii. Habitat may be terrestrial e.g. tropical rain forest, grassland, savanna, desert or Aquatic e.g. ocean, rivers, lagoon, leaf surface and any other suitable example.
7.

BIOTIC COMMUNITY OR BIOME:

a biotic community is any naturally occurring group of organisms living together and interacting in the same environment. A biome is the largest community of organisms e.g. rain forest and guinea savanna
8.

ECOLOGICAL NICHE:

ecological niche refers to the specific portion of a habitat is occupied by a particular species or organism. Every organism is adapted to a particular place, and definitely plays a role in that community. An example is how organisms feeds on other organisms or serves as food for other organisms within the community.
i. An organism is either a producer or consumer within a community.
ii. The sum total of all these roles for any given organism is referred to as ecological niche.
For an example, a caterpillar and an aphid which lives on the same plant occupy different position or ecological niches on the plant.
The caterpillar lives mainly on the leaves while the aphid lives on the young shoot and sucks sap from it.
Although both organism lives on the same plant, each one has its own living space and source of food.








9.

POPULATION:

population is defined as the total number of organisms of the same species living together in a given area. For example, the total number of tilapia fish in that habitat.
10.

ECOSYSTEM:

an ecosystem refers to a community of plants and animals functioning together with their non-living environment. In other words, ecosystem consists of living factors (plants and animals) interacting with the non-living factors in an environment
11.

COMMUNITY:

community refers to a group of plants and animals that occupy a given area and are adaptable to the condition of their environment. They are interdependent on one another and can continue to live successfully and reproduce new offspring


WHAT ARE THE COMPONENTS OF AN ECOSYSTEM?

The ecosystem is made up of two main components. They are biotic components (living things) and abiotic components (non-living things) these are explained in the order below
1.

BIOTIC COMPONENTS:

the biotic component includes the living things (plants and animals) which also can be grouped into consumers, producers and decomposers.
i. PRODUCERS: producers are the autotrophs (green plants and some micro-organisms) which has the ability to manufacture their own food through a process called photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.
ii. CONSUMERs: consumers are the heterotrophs found in an ecosystem. These are animals and can also include some plants. The consumers are those organisms in an ecosystem which cannot manufacture their own food but depend directly or indirectly on plants for their food. They can be grouped as primary, secondary and tertiary consumers
iii. DECOMPOSERS: decomposers are bacteria and some fungi which break down dead plants and animals in order to feed on them which releases nutrients in the process to the soil for use by the producers.

2.

ABIOTIC COMPONENTS:

the abiotic components of an ecosystem are the non-living things found within it. These are
i. Climatic factors such as temperature, wind, rainfall, humidity and sunlight
ii. Inorganic materials and nutrients such as carbon (iv) oxide, oxygen< nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus iii. Edaphic factors like soil, rocks and topography iv. Other factors include dust, storm, fire and water

What are the interactions between the components of an ecosystem?

There is a unique interaction amongst the various components of an ecosystem. They are explained as follows
Green plants use carbon IV oxide, water and chlorophyll to manufacture their food in the presence of sunlight to produce carbohydrates or starch.
Animals on their part, feeds on these carbohydrates or plants and release carbon IV oxide for plant to take in.
Micro-organisms and other decomposers breaks down dead plants and other organisms to release nutrients to the soil. These nutrients are absorbed by plants for use in food production.
Plants also on the other hand, gives out oxygen during photosynthesis which is used by animals for normal respiration


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