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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS OF AFFECTING ECOSYSTEM


ECOLOGICAL FACTORS

ECOLOGICAL FACTORS are those factors in the environment which can influence living organisms or cause changes in any habitat, be it aquatic or terrestrial
Ecological factors are grouped into two categories.
They are biotic and abiotic factors

What are the biotic factors that affect ecology?

Listed below are the Biotic factors affecting ecosystem

1.

COMPETETION:

competition involves in the interaction between two organisms of the same species or different species in which one outgrows the other and the other die or cannot survive

2.

PARASITISM:

this is a close association between two organisms in which one, called parasite lives on the other called host for survival. The parasite usually benefits from the association while the host suffers and most often dies out






3.

COMMENSALISM:

commensalism is an association between two organisms living together in which only one, the commensal, benefits from the association while the other is neither harmed nor benefits
4.

PREDATION:

predation is a type of association between two organisms in which the predator kills the other called the prey and feeds directly on it
5.

PATHOGENS:

these are micro-organisms which can be either plants or animals in an environment which can cause diseases to plant and animals that eventually leads to their death
6.

MORTALITY:

mortality is the death rate of organisms either plants or animals in an environment. Mortality generally reduces the population of organisms in any habitat

7.

MIGRATION:

this is the movement of organisms from habitat to another. Immigration then is the movement of organisms from a habitat into a new one while emigration is those moving out. These movement generally have effects on the other organisms inhibiting the same habitat

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING







40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES




154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


8.

DISPERSAL:

dispersal is the spreading of new organisms or individual from their parents to new habitat so as to start a new life. Such movement also affects the ecosystem or life in their new area
9.

NATALITY:

Natality is the rate of giving birth to new offspring. Natality is generally known the population of the habitat which will eventually lead to some problems within the habitat competing for food or survival
10.

FOOD:

availability of food in an habitat generally lead to increase in population in an habitat
11.

DISEASES:

diseases are known ton decrease the population of organisms in any habitat
12.

PEST:

pest are known to affect the performance of plants in terms of yield and growth and severe cases the plant may die


ABIOTIC FACTOR AFFECTING AN ECOSYSTEM


The abiotic factors affecting an ecosystem includes the following
1.

CLIMATIC FACTORS:

these are temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind, pressure and sunshine
2.

CHEMICAL FACTORS:

these are made up of oxygen, carbon dioxide, mineral salts, water and nitrogen
3.

EDAPHIC FACTORS:

These consist of soil, its water, chemical and physical composition, its pH, nutrients, profile, structure and texture.
4.

TOPOGRAPHY:

these are caused as a result of the shape of the earth’s surface, like the effect of rivers, hills, mountains and valleys

ECOLOGICAL FACTORS COMMON TO ALL HABITATS

There are common factors that affect nearly all the habitat, these are as follows






It is worthy of note, that of all these factors, temperature and rainfall determine the major Biomes of the world.

TEMPERATURE

1. Temperature determine the vegetation of an area
2. Temperature is necessary for the germination of seeds
3. Temperature affects the distribution plants and animals
4. It regulates the activities of major living things
5. Temperature affects evaporation and transpiration, and reduces the performance of plants and animals
6. It affects the wilting field crops
7. Temperature may lead to loss of soil nutrient through volatilization
8. Unfavourable temperature may result in seed dormancy

RAINFALL

1. Rainfall; determines season in some places like Nigeria where we have rainy and dry seasons
2. Rainfall determine the vegetation of a place
3. Rainfall determine the distribution of plants and animals
4. Rainfall provides the dwelling place for some organisms like fish
5. Rainfall is necessary for seed germination
6. Rainfall helps to dissolve nutrient in the soil
7. Rainfall is the main source of water to rivers, lakes and seas
8. Plants use water for photosynthesis

WIND

1. Wind also determine seasons in Nigeria
2. Wind helps in the distribution of rainfall
3. Wind aids in the spread of diseases
4. It aids the pollination of plant flowers
5. Wind aids the dispersal of seeds and fruits
6. High velocity wind causes wind erosion
7. Wind is responsible for water current and waves
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS

LIGHT

1. Sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis to take place in green plants
2. It affects avapo-transpiration
3. Light affect the productivity of crops
4. Light affects flowering and fruiting plants
5. Light is the ultimate source of energy for all organisms
6. Light affect the activities of animals

PRESSURE

1. The atmospheric pressure decreases as one goes up from the sea level
2. In aquatic environment, pressure increases as one moves down the water
3. Plants and animals have a special level of adaptation to pressure to enable them live or survive
4. Too high or too low pressure will always affects the life and performance of plants and animals
5. Pressure is responsible for movement of winds


HYDROGEN ion CONCENTRATION (pH)

1. pH values ranges from 1 to 14, with pH 1 been very acidic, pH 7 neutral while pH 14 is alkaline
2. living organisms are highly sensitive to pH change4s in the environment
3. too high or too low pH will affect the life of both plants and animals
4. plants and animals are adapted to special pH values
5. most plants strive well in neutral or slightly alkaline while acidic soil supports very little vegetation

ECOLOGICAL FACTORS COMMON TO AQUATIC HABITATS


The following are the factors affecting aquatic habitat
1.

temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind ,pressure, pH and light

have all been explained earlier
2.

SALINITY:

salinity is defined as the degree of saltiness or concentration of salt solution in water. Salinity is low in fresh water, high in sea water and moderate ion brackish water
Aquatic organisms need to maintain the osmotic

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