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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

HUMAN INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND THEIR CAUSES


WHAT IS A DISEASE?

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful, but under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease.
Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person. Some are transmitted by bites from insects or animals. And others are acquired by ingesting contaminated food or water or being exposed to organisms in the environment.

Signs and symptoms vary depending on the organism causing the infection, but often include fever and fatigue. Mild infections may respond to rest and home remedies, while some life-threatening infections may require hospitalization.
Early one morning, Dani woke up to find that he has a very high temperature and pains at his joints. He was also tired. Because of this he was unable to go to school. He was unable to do any work. At the hospital, the doctor examined him. The report shows he has a disease which made his body not to work properly. From the above, we can say that a disease is anything or sickness that prevents the body from working properly.









WHAT CAUSES DISEASE?

Diseases are caused by many agents. The most important of these agents are the germs. These germs are very tiny substances that we cannot see with our naked eyes. We can however, see them with the help of an instrument known as the microscope. Another agent that can cause diseases is called parasite. A parasite lives and feed on other animals. On feeding on other animals, it injures them thus causing diseases. Tiredness and over-work can also cause diseases. In some cases exposure to much cold can cause diseases. Starvation or lack of good food can cause some diseases. Accident can be the beginning of a number of disease such as tetanus (lock-jaw).

HOW DISEASES ARE SPREAD

Diseases are spread by air, contaminated food, waters, insects and other small animals and by contact between affected and other unaffected persons.
1.

Examples of air-borne diseases

are :small-pox, measles, mumps, common cold,
Cough, pneumonia and tuberculosis.
2.

Examples of disease contaminated food are:

dysentery, food poisoning, typhoid and worms.
3.

Examples of water-borne diseases are:

dysentery, typhoid and liver flukes.
4.

Examples of diseases spread by insects and other small animal:

malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, sleeping sickness and filariasis.
5.

Examples of diseases spread by contact:

ringworm, yaws, leprosy and scabies.
6.

Examples of broken skin diseases:

tetanus (lock-jaw).









HOW DO DISEASES GET INTO THE BODY?

Except for a few cases, germs must enter the body before they can cause diseases. There are a number of ways through which they can do this.
1.(a)

THROUGH THE SKIN:

disease germs can easily enter the body through damaged skin. For example, when we fall or have accidents, the skin is damaged. If by carelessness, we do not cover or bandage the wound, in a short while, germs will go into the body. Germs that cause tetanus or lock-jaw enters the body through this way.
(b) When mosquito pierces the skin, it may inject germs of malaria or yellow fever into the body. The hookworm enters the body by piercing through the skin.
2.

THROUGH THE MOUTH AND NOSE:

germs that enters the body through the mouth and nose are mainly those that are spread by air. Examples of diseases caused by germs entering the body in this way are common in colds, measles, chicken pox, small pox, pneumonia, tuberculosis and mump.
3.

THROUGH WALLS OF STOMACH AND INTESTINES:

dirty food and water contain disease germs. When such food and water are taken, the germs are sent into the stomach and intestines. From these places, the germs pass into the body. In some cases, the germs damages the walls of the stomach and intestines thus giving rise stomach-ache and pains. The diseases caused in this way are dysentery, worms and cholera.

GENERAL WAYS OF PREVENTING DISEASES.

If one is to remain healthy, he must at all times eat good food and remain clean. In addition he must carry out the following:



1. Keep his hands and objects from his mouth. Food that is dirty or is infected should not be taken. Food that has been drooped on the floor should not be eaten. Dirty and contaminated water should never be taken. Where there is no tap water, all drinking water should be boiled.
2. Before eating the hands should be washed with soap and water, especially immediately after using the toilet. All raw food and fruits must be thoroughly washed before being eaten since they are likely to be contaminated in the farm. Do not eat uncooked or half-cooked food. Always cover your food to keep away flies and other disease carrying insects.
3. Have good toilet or latrines. These should be located a good distance from the house. It should always be kept clean and well covered. Excreta should never be placed at unauthorized places.
4. The feet are the most likely places to be wounded than other parts of the body. One should always wear shoes. The practice of removing shoes when one is walking through water or over dirty places is not good. Shoes should always be put on to protect the feet from cuts and from the entry of worms. In case of cuts, immediate treatment with antiseptics should be given. The wound should be covered with a bandage.
5. Destroy all stagnant water. Some disease-carrying insects live and breed there. Spray the house with flit, shelltox, etc. regularly to kill all dangerous insects.
6. It is dangerous to sneeze, cough and spit about. Where there is a cough always cover it up.
7. Certain diseases such as small pox, cholera, tetanus, yellow fever, etc. can be prevented by immunization. Go to the health centres to do so. When this is done then you cannot be attacked by these diseases.
8. Always stay away from people who have infectious diseases such as cold. All infected persons should see the doctor. After receiving treatment they should always stay in bed, avoid crowded places such as cinema houses, classes and buses.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88.





89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


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