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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given per...

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digestion of food in the elementary canal


DIGESTION OF FOOD AND THE ELEMENTARY CANAL IN MAN

Alimentary canal, also called digestive tract, pathway by which food enters the body and solid wastes are expelled. The alimentary canal includes the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.

What is the elementary canal?

This is the digestive system in man through which food substances are taken in and by which also nutrients are taken into the blood steam. The elementary canal in man includes the following









i. Mouth
ii. Oesophagus
iii. Stomach
iv. Duodenum
v. Small intestine
vi. Large intestine or colon
vii. Rectum
viii. Anus

Importance of the parts of the elementary canal are as follows

1. Functions of the teeth
i. The teeth are used to cut, grind and chew food into tiny particles
ii. The teeth exposes large area of food for the action of enzymes

2.

Functions of the tongue

i. The tongue helps to roll the food into bolus
ii. The tongue aids the movement of food in the mouth
iii. The tongue allows the mixing of food in the mouth with saliva or ptyalin-enzyme
iv. The tongue aids in swallowing of food into the Oesophagus or gullet

3.

Functions of the salivary gland

i. The salivary gland is part of the digestive system which secretes saliva which in turn contains an enzyme called ptyalin.
ii. The ptyalin as an enzyme that breaks down starch into maltose which is later swallowed into the gullet in form of bolus
iii. It allows for the easy chewing or movement of food in the mouth for swallowing
iv. It also serves as solvent for food




4. h2>Functions of the Oesophagus/Gullet:The Oesophagus connects the mouth to the stomach. The food swallowed is passed down into through the Oesophagus by a movement called peristaltic movement.


5.

Functions of the stomach:

i. The stomach is a temporary storage for food which takes just a few hours which is then released through the opening of the pyloric sphincter at regular intervals.
ii. In the stomach, the gastric gland secretes gastric juice which contains two enzymes, the RENIN and PEPSIN
iii. The renin acts on milk. It helps to curdle milk.
iv. The pepsin breaks down protein to peptones
v. The gastric gland also secretes hydrochloric acid (HCL) which creates an acid medium for two enzymes to act.
vi. The HCL also helps to kill bacteria in the stomach.
vii. The food is churned by muscular contraction of the stomach wall which enables the mixing of food with digestive juice-enzymes
viii. The churning movement then converts the food in semi-liquid state called chyme

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE





49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS

98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES





146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE




6.

Functions of the DUODENUM

I. The digestion of food takes place in this region of the elementary.
II. The Duodenum contains pancreas which secretes pancreatic juice that contains three enzymes. These enzymes are
1. Amylase: this enzyme converts starch to maltose
2. Lipase: lipase converts fats and oil to fatty acid and glycerol
3. Trypsin: trypsin converts proteins and peptones to polypeptides
iii. The pancreatic juice is alkaline and provides that medium for enzymes
iv. The digestion of fats and oil is aided a green alkaline liquid called BILE which is secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
v.

The bile helps in the emulsification of fats-meaning breaking down fats into tiny droplets

vi. At the end of the digestion in the Duodenum, the food which is now in liquid form called chyme, passes into the ileum or small intestine

7.

The functions of the small intestine

i. The small intestine also known as ileum is found between the Duodenum and large intestine
ii. Two major events takes place in the small intestine
iii. These events are 1. Digestion and 2. Absorption of the digested food
iv.

DIGESTION of food also takes place in the small intestine or ileum

v. The intestinal wall secretes intestinal juice which contains the following enzymes, lipase, erepsin, maltase, sucrose and lactase
vi.

The lipase converts fats and oil to fatty acid and glycerol

vii.

Erepsin converts polypeptides to amino acid

viii.

Maltase converts maltose to two units of glucose

ix. Sucrose

converts sucrose to glucose and fructose

x.

Lactase converts lactose to glucose and galactose









In man, the final digestion of food ends in the small intestine.
The end product in the
digestion of protein are amino acids, fats and oil, fatty acid and glycerol while that of starch ends in glucose


ABSORPTION OF FOOD

The end product of digestion of food, which are amino-acids, glucose, fatty acids and glycerol are absorbed in the small intestine by a tiny finger-like structures called villi, Villus for singular.
The folding of the small intestine and the numerous villi presence creates a large surface area for the absorption of digested food nutrients.
The inner surface layer or epithelium of each villus is thin.
This allows the end product by either diffusion or by active transport through it.
The glucose and amino acids are easily absorbed by blood capillaries through the epithelium while the fatty acid and glycerol enter the lacteal where they are carried through the lymph vessels which eventually empty their contents into the blood vessels near the heart.
The blood then carries the fats and other food materials to various parts of the body where they are needed.


8.

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CEACUM AND APPENDIX

The functions of the caecum and appendix are not well defined or known in man but are well known to contain some bacteria which aid minor digestion of cellulose.
Some vitamins such as K and B-complex are partially synthesized in this region


9.

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE

i. The undigested food particles passes into the colon or large intestine.
ii. Here in the large intestine, water is absorbed
iii. This absorption of water, concentrates the waste products and turn them into faeces.
iv. These faeces is finally passed into the rectum and then eventually pushed out of the body through the anus.









FUNCTIONS OF THE DIGESTIVE ENZYMES

Enzymes performs the following function within the body. They are
1. Enzymes helps in breaking down proteins in food into amino acid
2. The help to break down fats and oil into fatty acids and glycerol
3. Enzymes helps to break down carbohydrates into glucose, fructose and galactose
4. The digestive enzymes aids in the absorption of digested food through the addition of water to the food

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