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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

ECOLOGICAL AND VEGETATIVE ZONES IN NIGERIA


ECOLOGICAL AND VEGETATIVE ZONES IN NIGERIA

Vegetation usually depends on the climate zones of the country. Vegetation belts in Nigeria reflect the tight link between the vegetation and the country’s climate: Rainforest; Fresh Water Swamp; Sahel Savanna; Short Grass Savanna; Guinea Savanna; Woodland; Marginal Savanna; Mangrove; Montane; Sudan Savanna. Read more: https://www.legit.ng/1096264-vegetation-zones-nigeria-features.html

NIGERIA
The vegetative zones and local; biotic communities in Nigeria can be grouped into two major areas. They are Forest zone and the Savanna zone. These are further sub-grouped into climatic belts.







1.

FOREST ZONE:

MANGROVE SWAMP FOREST:this is made up of fresh and salt water swamp
ii.

TROPICAL RAIN FOREST


2.

SAVANNA:

The savanna zones of Nigeria is made up of grass land and is further sub-divided into three main belt biotic communities which are Southern Guinea savanna, Northern Guinea savanna and Sahel Savanna.

MANGROVE SWAMP FOREST


The mangrove swamp forest is found along the coastal belt of the country, especially in states like Delta, Rivers, Akwa-Ibom, Cross Rivers, Bayelsa, Ondo, Ogun and Lagos state.












i. A typical swamp forest has tall woody trees
ii. Plants found in swamp forest mainly have aerial roots
iii. The trees in the swamp forest are evergreen with broad leaves.
iv. This belt has high rainfall of over 250cm throughout the year which results in water logging
v. Waters in the swamp forest is combination fresh and salt water
vi. Common plant species found here are white mangrove, red mangrove, raffia palm, coconut etc.
vii. Animals found in the swamp forest include Tilapia fish, oysters, crabs, snakes, birds and others


TROPICAL RAIN-FOREST


Where can we find the tropical rain-forest in Nigeria?
The tropical rain-forest can be found in states like Lagos, Edo, Delta, Ogun, Anambra, Bayelsa, Abia, Imo, Ondo and Akwa Ibom.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES


56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151.





152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

CHARACTERISTICS OF A TROPICAL RAIN-FOREST

How can we identify a tropical rain-forest?
Here are a few characteristics identifiable the tropical rain-forest
i. The vegetation found in the tropical rain-forest has tall trees with buttress roots and evergreen leaves
ii. The trees exist in different height or layers
iii. The biome experience high rainfall of over 200cm, high temperature and high relative humidity
iv. Plants species found in this type of ecological zone are Iroko, Obeche, Mahogany, African walnut, Opepe and Ebony
v. Animals commonly found in this belt are monkeys, birds, snakes, chameleon and squirrel
vi. The trees are scattered and deciduous, meaning they shed leaves during dry season
vii. The tropical forest usually has tall grasses


SOUTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA

This biotic communities are found in states like Enugu, Kogi, Benue, Kwara, Oyo, Ebonyi, Osun and Ekiti

CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA


I. THIS TYPE OF COMMUNITY OR BELT is the largest in Nigeria
II. It has moderate rainfall of around 100-150cm
III. The Southern Guinea Savanna has tall grasses
IV. The trees here are tall and as broad leaves
V. The trees are scattered and deciduous
VI. The important trees here includes locust bean tree, shea butter and Isobelina
VII. Animals found in this ecological zone include but not limited to antelopes, lions, leopard and zebra.


NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA

This biome is found in states like Plateau, Kaduna, Bauchi, Niger, Taraba, Adamawa and Kano

CHARACTERISTICS OF NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA


i. The Northern Guinea Savanna has a relatively low rainfall of about 50-100cm per annum
ii. The Northern Guinea Savanna has scattered and short d3ciduous trees
iii. It has short but numerous grasses
iv. Most of the trees has thorn while others have thick bark
v. Some of the trees wither in dry season and sprout at the beginning of rainy season
vi. Common plants species found In this belt or communities are acacia, date palm, silk cotton plant and baobab
vii. Common animal are lizards, deer, lions, leopards, antelope and hyena


SAHEL SAVANNA

The local biotic community called Sahel Savanna is found only in the extreme Northern parts of Nigeria such as Bornu, Kano, Sokoto, Kebbi, Zamfara, and Jigawa

CHARACTERISTICS OF SAHEL SAVANNA

i. The biome has high temperature and very low rainfall of below 50cm per annum
ii. This ecological belt or zone has short and scanty grasses
iii. It also has short and tough shrubs or trees
iv. It has many drought resistant and scattered plants
v. The grasses are poorer and in patches
vi. Important trees includes acacia, gum Arabic and date pam


CHARACTERISTICS OF TREES AND SHRUB OF THE SAVANNA

I. Trees and shrubs are scattered and woody
II. They have narrow leaves and few stomata
III. Their leaves have thick cuticle
IV. The trees are not usually very tall
V. The have gnarled, twisted or crooked trunks with fissured, fire resistant or corky barks
VI. Most of the trees are deciduous


VII. They also have long taproots with an extensive root system

DESERT

This biome is located at the northern borders of Sokoto, Katsina, Jigawa, Yobe and Bornu

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DESERT

1. A desert has little or no rainfall in most of the year
2. The desert has high temperature and very low humidity
3. The desert has fewer grasses and shrubs
4. The plants found in the desert have special features which enable them to survive in the desert
5. Examples of trees found here are cacti trees and baobab


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