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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given per...

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ECOLOGY AND MAJOR BIOMES OF THE WORLD


ECOLOGY AND MAJOR BIOMES OF THE WORLD

Ecology as we learnt earlier has to do with organisms and their environment. How they interact and obtain satisfaction from it. There are a lot of time zones, geographical zones and climatic zones all around the world. But in this article we shall be discussing the basic biomes of the world which are as follows
1. TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
2. SAVANNA
3. DESERT
4. SHRUB
5. AFRO-ALPHINE
6. SWAMP

THE TROPICAL RAIN FOREST


The tropical rain forest is located around the equator. That is within 50 north and south poles of the Equator. The forest is found in the Amazon basin of South America, Zaire basin of Central Africa, the coast of West Africa and interior Malaysia.






characteristics OF TROPICAL RAIN FOREST


i. Tropical rain forest has high temperature of between 25-370C with small annual range of 2-30C
ii. Rainfall is throughout the year with two peaks
iii. It has an annual rainfall of over 200mm
iv. Tropical rain forest has an abundant sunshine
v. Relative humidity within the tropical rain forest is very high
vi. The tropical rain forest trees have broad evergreen leaves
vii. There are various layers of trees in the tropical rain forest
viii. The trees are of great varieties
ix. There is abundance of tall hard woods like the African walnut and Obeche
x. Creepers, climbers, epiphytes and parasitic plants are commonly found in the tropical rain forest
xi. The forest has little undergrowth
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES





146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE



SAVANNA OR GRASSLAND


Savanna covers very extensive areas of the world which in estimation is about 20% of the world’s total land mass
Grassland are distinguished from the forest by the relatively few trees
present and the abundance of grasses. The grassland Is a transitional biome between the forest and the desert
Grassland or savanna is grouped into tropical grassland and temperate grassland

TROPICAL GRASSLAND

The tropical grassland is located at 5 and 200 North and South of the Equator
Areas where this grassland are found includes Central America, North West part of South America, interior Brazil, West Africa, part of East Africa, South East Asia and Northern Australia

EIGHT (8) CHARACTERISTICS OF TROPICAL GRASSLAND

1. The temperature of the tropical grassland are at extreme at 300C
2. It has an annual rainfall of about 600mm to 1500mm
3. The tropical grassland has an annual temperature of about 11 degree centigrade (110C)
4. The tropical grassland has tall grasses that are fibrous when old
5. There is the presence of scattered trees


6. The trees found in the tropical grassland are deciduous. Meaning they shed leaves during dry season
7. Popular trees in the community include but not limited to acacia, baobab and shea-butter
8. The grasses are calle4d savanna in Africa and Australia, campos in Brazil







TEMPERATE GRASSLAND

The temperate grassland is found in the interior continent of Asia, North America, South America, South Africa and Australia

TEN (10) CHARACTERISTICS OF TEMPERATE GRASSLAND


1. The vegetation of the temperate grassland is associated with the temperate continental climate
2. It has hot summer with temperature of over 20 degrees
3. It has cold winter of below 0 degree
4. Temperate grassland has average rainfall of about 508mm.
5. The rainfall is usually convectional and light
6. There is abundance of grasses.
7. The grasses tends to have uniform high
8. Trees are scarce in the temperate grassland
9. The grasses found in temperate grassland are succulent
10. The grasses have different names in different places where they are found
Examples are
a. The Steppe of Central Europe and Russia
b. The Pampas of Argentina
c. The Veld of South Africa
d. The Downs of Australia

THE DESERT


The deserts are areas generally associated with aridity or dryness. There are two types of deserts. Hot and cold desert. The desert is usually very hot with little or no rainfall for most of the year.

HOT DESERTS


The hot deserts of the world are located on the Western coast of continents within Latitude 150C and 300C north and south of the Equator
Hot deserts of the world includes the Sahara desert in North Africa, Arabian desert in Arabia, Iranian desert in Iran, Namib and Kalahari desert in South Africa, Great Australian desert in Australia and the Atacama desert in South America

EIGHT (8) CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT DESERT

1. Hot deserts have high temperature 300C to 600C
2. Aridity or rainlessness is a common characteristics of the hot deserts
3. Evaporation is high while the relative humidity is very low
4. The deserts are associated with cold current
5. Vegetation is sparse or scanty
6. Common vegetation include grasses, shrubs and herbs
7. Annual rainfall is about 200mm to 250mm
8. Most plants found here xerophytes or drought resistant plants which includes but not limited to thorny bushes, bulbous cacti, wiring grasses, date palm and acacia.


COLD DESERTS

Cold deserts are located or found in the interior of the continents around 45 – 60 north and south of the Equator. Cold deserts are found in the interiors of Eurasia, North America and Patagonia

SIX (6) CHARACTERISTICS OF COLD DESERTS

1. Cold deserts has hot summers and cold winters with temperature of about 7 degree
2. Winters are very cold while the summers are hot with about 37 degree
3. Cold deserts have short and scanty grasses
4. It has drought resistant grasses
5. Rainfall is about 25cm low and unpredictable at peak times
6. Annual temperature is about 400C




SHRUB VEGETATION


The shrub vegetation is found in semi-arid regions of the world, border land of tropical deserts and the interior of continents. Is found in West Africa close to the Sahara desert, North-Eastern Brazil and Australia.

SIX (6) CHARACTERISTICS OF SHRUBS


1. Shrubs has a very high temperature
2. The rainfall here is very low
3. Summers are hot and dry while winters are mild and rainy
4. IT has drought resistant shrubs
5. Shrubs has patches of grasses which are absent in some cases
6. Herbs and low thorny bushes are common

AFRO-ALPNINE

Afro-Alphine is a kind of vegetation that is associated with mountains or highlands. The Afro-Alphine vegetation is mostly related to Africa and is found in highlands such as the Cameroun Mountain, Kenya highland, Kilimanjaro mountain of East Africa

SIX (6) CHARACTERISTICS OF AFRO-ALPHINE


1. Temperature and pressure of the Afro-Alphine decrease with Altitude
2. Heavy rainfall is experienced on the windward side of the mountain
3. The windward side of the mountain may have a luxuriant forest type of vegetation
4. The leeward side of the mountain may have grassland vegetation
5. Vegetation decreases with the height of the mountain
6. The peak of the mountain may experience ice-cap or permanent snow

SWAMP


The swamp forest are usually found in the tropics. Along the coastal regions and river mouths in West Africa, East Africa and South Africa.
Swamp are generally found along the coastal regions of the world

SEVEN (7) CHARACTERISTICS SWAMP

1. SWAMP HAS A HIGH temperature of about 270C throughout the year
2. It has relative rainfall of about 2500mm with no distinct season
3. The dominant plants are the white mangroves, red mangroves and raffia palm
4. The trees have stilt roots which grow down ward and branch into mud surface
5. Relative humidity in swamp is very high
6. The white mangroves has roots which enables it to carry out gaseous exchange
7. Animals commonly found here includes mud skipper, crabs and tilapia fishes


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Important topics related to the above article

1. Recognizing living things
2. Biology as an enquiry in science
3. Branches of biology
4. Processes of methods of science
5. Usefulness of science
6. Living and non-living things
7. Characteristics of living things
8. Differences between plants and animals
9. Organization of life

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