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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

INSECT-BORNE DISEASE AND MALARIA PREVENTION


INSECT-BORNE DISEASE

1. MALARIA AND THE MOSQUITO.
Malaria is a very dangerous disease which is known to have killed many people especially children. It usually starts as a fever when the body of the patient becomes hot. This is followed with headache and pains in the back and joints such persons do not feel like eating. Later the patient shivers and becomes restless. He cannot sleep even when he tries to.







CAUSES OF MALARIA
Malaria is caused by parasitic germs carried by an insect called Anopheles mosquito. When the mosquito bites, it pierces the skin and sucks out the blood. During the blood sucking operation, the parasites which are present in the mosquito are introduced into the body of man. Here, the parasites increase in number. They destroy the red blood corpuscles of man and introduce poisonous substances into his blood it is this poisonous substances that cause feverishness. If the blood of a sick person or a person who has been attacked earlier is sucked by another mosquito, the parasites are taken out and probably injected into another person during another bite.
THE MOSQUITO
The mosquito is a small, thin fly. It has two wings and six long tiny legs. It also has a long piercing mouth. Mosquitoes breed in the water standing in cans, broken bottles, pots and any other kind of container.
Adult mosquitoes live in the bush and in dark corners of the house. They are very active at night when most people are asleep.


It has four stages in its life cycle. These are the egg, the larva, the pupa and the adult.
THE EGG
The mosquitoes lays their eggs on the surface of stagnant or stationary water. The eggs are boat-shaped and have a floating apparatus called `floats’.1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER





88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

THE LARVA
In about four to seven days, the eggs hatch open and the larvae come out. The larva is a small, very active animal with a small head, big thorax and long segmented abdomen. It has a large number of brushes. At the tail end is a breathing tube. It lies on the surface of water.
THE PUPA
The larva changes into a comma-shaped pupa after about eight to eleven days. It has a big head with big eyes and breathing tubes.
THE ADULT
As previously described, it is a small insect which is active at night or in dark rooms. The female hums. It has a long piercing mouth and bushy feelers.

PREVENTION MALARIA
Since malaria is caused by parasites carried by mosquitoes, it is best prevented by killing and destroying all stages of mosquitoes.
1. All adult mosquitoes should be killed by spraying houses with shelltox, DDT, and other insecticides.
2. All standing water in cans and empty containers should be drained away. Exposed water should not be allowed to remain for more than four days. Plants such as the cocoyam, banana and plantain should not be cultivated near houses, since between the leaves of these plants water will accumulate, thus, providing a suitable breeding place for mosquitoes.
3. The surface of stagnant pools which cannot be drained should be sprayed with oil. The oil spread over the water surface, prevents the larvae and the pupae of breeding mosquitoes from breathing. They will suffocate and die.
4. Quite occasionally we have large ponds of water. To prevent the breeding of mosquitoes, it is advisable to introduce some fish into such ponds. The fish will feed on the larvae and pupae.
5. Attacks by mosquitoes can be prevented by sleeping under mosquito nets. Where possible house should be mosquito-proof with mosquito netting of fine wires or muslin netting.
6. Malaria can be avoided by taking few tablets of some medicines regularly. Such medicines include: nivaquine, camoquin, daraprim, etc. The medicines destroy the malarial parasites as they enter the body and thus prevent them from causing any damage to the blood.
2. SLEEPING SICKNESS
Sleeping sickness is very common in tropical Africa. In Nigeria, it is most common in the northern states. They attack cattle and horses.it also attacks man.
In man, sleeping sickness begins with a painful swelling in the skin. This is followed with fever, headache, pains and swelling of the neck. In later stages, the patient loses weight, becomes weak, dull, drowsy, and sleepy and may finally die.
CAUSES AND SPREAD
Sleeping sickness is caused by some parasitic germs called trypanosomes. This germs are spread by a fly known as tsetse fly. When the fly bites a patient the parasites are introduced into the skin. From the skin the parasites enter the blood from where they are sent to other parts of the body including the brain.
PREVENTION OF SLEEPING SICKNESS








1. In tsetse fly areas, all bushes near houses should be cleared.
2. Since tsetse flies breed in swamps by rivers and lakes, they can be eliminated or prevented from spreading if the bushes around these rivers and lakes are cleared for considerable distances.
3. It is advisable to wear clothes which cover most parts of the body.
4. Some chemicals such as DDT, dieldrin, etc. may be used to spray to kill tsetse flies.

3. YELLOW FEVER
Yellow fever is a disease caused by a germ (virus) carried by Aedes mosquitoes.
Yellow fever usually starts with fever and headache. This is accompanied with loss of appetite, some pains and general weakness
In severe cases, however, the patient becomes very ill due to the attack of patient’s liver and kidneys by the disease germs. The patient becomes yellow and it is important to note that a large number of patients with severe attacks usually die.

PREVENTION OF YELLOW FEVER
1. All mosquitoes must be destroyed by draining stagnant water in tins and cans.
2. Houses should be sprayed regularly to kill adult mosquitoes.
3. All bushes near houses should be cleared.
4. Always sleep under mosquito-nets.







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5. Usefulness of science
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7. Characteristics of living things
8. Differences between plants and animals
9. Organization of life

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