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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given per...

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types of enzymes and their classes


TYPES OF ENZYMES

What is an enzyme?
An enzyme is an organic catalyst, usually proteinous in nature, which promotes or speeds up chemical changes in living cells but are not used up themselves in the process of the chemical changes or reaction.
Enzymes accelerate metabolic reactions without changing their composition in the process.
There are six key types of enzymes in organic chemistry. They are organized according to the way they work on a molecular level.

But first, what is an enzyme? An enzyme is a substance – usually a protein – created by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about life-sustaining biochemical reactions. Different types of enzymes have different classifications based on the kind of reactions they catalyze. Every organism – from the one-celled bacterium to the trillion-celled elephant – has many enzymes at work.

TYPES ENZYMES

There are two major types of enzymes. These are
i. Intracellular enzymes: these types of enzymes usually functions inside the cells of living organisms. Common examples of these type of enzymes are the enzymes that catalyze cell respiration inside the mitochondria.
ii. Extracellular enzymes: these types of enzymes are enzymes which carry out their functions outside the cells. Examples of extracellular enzymes are the digestive enzymes






CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYME


The new method of classifying enzymes is based on the nature of the chemical changes it facilitates on a substrate. Such changes may involve oxidation in which case the enzyme will be called an oxidase.
It should be noted that the earlier classification based on the substrate on which the enzyme works on like the amylase for maltose, protease for protein or lipases for lipids are no longer correct or biochemically acceptable. So enzymes are classified as summarized below this article, so scroll down to read it.
So from this deduction, it is clear that all digestive enzymes belong to the class called hydrolases.
These class of enzymes called hydrolases generally refers to enzymes that break up various bonds, which is breaking large molecules into smaller particles in the presence of water.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES







54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION


109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


CHARACTERISTICS OF ENZYMES

The following are the various ways to recognize an enzyme
They are
1. Enzymes remain chemically unchanged after a chemical reaction
2. Enzymes are specific in action. So one or more group of enzymes will act on specific substrates.
3. They are required in small quantities
4. Enzymes act best over a specific range of temperature, between 350-400C.
5. Enzymes are denature. Which is to say they are destroyed at high temperature and inactivated at very low temperature.
6. Enzymes act best at specific PH level. Either alkaline or acidic
7. The action of an enzyme is reversible
8. The action of an enzyme can be retarded by poison or inhibitors
9. Some enzyme are inactive and so require a co-enzyme to activate them
10. Enzymes can function outside the body of the organism that produced them
11. Enzymes are proteinous in nature


HERE ARE THE CLASSES OF ENZYME EXPLAINED








CLASS OF ENZYMES

1. HYDROLASES
Catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage or breaking up of carbon-oxygen, carbon-nitrogen or carbon bonds
2. OXIDO-REDUCTASES
Enzymes catalyzes the joining together of two molecules with accompanying hydrolysis of a higher energy bond.
3. TRANSFERASES:
This type of enzyme catalyzes a reaction of the general form: A+B+CIA+C+B
4. ISOMERASES:
This class of enzymes work on isomers and usually change the spatial configuration of molecule in a living cell
5. LIGASES:
This class of enzyme catalyzes the joining together of two molecules with the accompanying hydrolysis of a high energy bond
6. LYASES:
This class of enzyme catalyzes the breaking up of bonds by elimination or addition reaction


FUNCTIONS OF THE DIGESTIVE ENZYMES

Enzymes performs the following function within the body. They are
1. Enzymes helps in breaking down proteins in food into amino acid
2. The help to break down fats and oil into fatty acids and glycerol
3. Enzymes helps to break down carbohydrates into glucose, fructose and galactose






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