fabioclass

WATER BORNE DISEASES AND TRANSMISSION



SOME WATER DISEASES, CAUSES BY WORMS AND THE HOUSEFLY

1. DYSENTRY
Dysentry is a disease of the intestines. It begins with an attack on the intestines by the disease germs causing pain in the abdomen. This is followed with diarrhea. The patient goes to the toilet (lavatory) frequently and the faeces produced are watery and mixed with mucus. If not attended to immediately, the faeces may soon become mixed with blood. At this stage the patient becomes weak since the food he takes are not utilized by the body.





TYPES OF DYSENTERY

There are two types and each is caused by different agents.
A. BACILLARY DYSENTERY: This caused by a germ called bacillus. This germ is usually found in the faeces of persons suffering from this disease.
B. AMOEBIC DYSENTERY: this is caused by small parasitic animals called amoeba. This parasite is found in dirty water.

SPREAD OF DYSENTERY

Dysentery is spread by the housefly which usually breeds in dirty places from where it goes into houses. Amoebic dysentery is spread by dirty water.

PREVENTION OF DYSENTERY

1. Food: all food materials and plates for serving must always be kept away from flies. Flies should never be allowed to settle on them.
2. Faeces must always be covered and placed out of reach of flies. The habit of leaving in the bush behind houses is bad as flies will get at it and will later fly into houses.
3. Water should always be boiled and chlorinated before drinking.
4. Flies should always be killed. Such insecticides as DDT, Shelltox, etc. are very useful.
5. Rotten materials should not be allowed to accumulate near houses as flies would easily use them for breeding.

2.

THE HOUSEFLY

The housefly is a very common insect. It loves dirty and filthy places. The female lays about four hundred to five hundred eggs on decaying matter such as food or excreta.






The eggs hatch after about a day and the little maggots which emerge grow bigger and later change into barrel shaped pupae. The adult housefly emerges from the pupae after a few days.

HABIT OF THE HOUSEFLY

The housefly feeds on human food such as sugar, palm wine, rice, garri etc. when on the food, it vomits some juice into it. This juice is later taken back. It is during the feeding that the fly contaminates food with disease germs. The housefly is also very hairy and these hairs collect a lot of germs infested dirts which are left on food during their visits.

DISEASES SPREAD BY FLIES

A number of diseases are spread by flies. These includes
1. Diarrhea and dysentry (amoebic and bacillary)
2. Cholera
3. Typhoid
4. Tuberculosis
5. Worms and
6. Yaws.

3.

WORMS

(a). ROUNDWORM: They are found in the small intestines of man. They look like earthworm. They are pink or white in colour. They have the male and the female. The female is bigger than the male. It lays thousands of small eggs every day. These eggs are passed out with faeces or excreta.
Roundworms cause pains in the bowel. They are also known to damage the intestine and this may lead to loss of blood.

>h2>PREVENTION OF ROUNDWORMS1. Since the eggs of roundworms are passed out with faeces a very important way of preventing the spread is to bury the faeces.
2. Hands must be washed properly with soap and water, after using the toilet or lavatory.
3. Hands must be washed before eating.
4. Food that has fallen on the ground should not be eaten.
5. Drinking water from rivers or streams that run through many towns should be avoided as these are usually contaminated with refuse.
6. Food should always be protected from flies which easily pick up the eggs of this worm from refuse and dirty floors.






(b).

TAPEWORM:

the tapeworm is a long tape-like animal that is found in the bowel of man. However, the bowel can only keep one or two of them. It is flat and has a small head which is usually attached on the wall of the intestine by means of some hooks. The body has a large number of sections each of which look like the other.
Tapeworms are passed to man when he eats contaminated pork which is not well cooked.

PREVENTION OF TAPEWORMS

1. Pork should always be examined and those that are infected should be thrown away.
2. All pork should be thoroughly cooked before being eaten.
3. Pigs should be well cared for in the piggery. The practice of leaving pigs to roam through our villages eating all sort of dirty food and matter will result in their meat being infected with tapeworm.
4. Faeces should be well disposed thus preventing pigs getting at it.

(c).

THREADWORM:

these worms are small, short and white. They measure about one quarter to half an inch long. They have rough bodies. The worms live in the large intestine and the anus, causing a lot of irritation and itching at night. The itching may cause scratching of the anus. During this scratching the eggs are carried in the finger nails and later transferred into the mouth.

PREVENTION OF THREAD-WORM

1. Hands and underneath of nails must be well washed before eating.
2. Children should not be allowed to suck their fingers.


CHOLERA






This is a very dangerous disease common in places or countries with poor sanitation. It has been reported in parts of Asia and some countries in Africa.
The disease starts with severe stooling and excessive vomiting. The patient then complains of weakness and stomach pains. The patient’s body dries up and he may even die.
The disease is caused by a comma-shaped germ or bacterium which is easily carried about by water and flies.

PREVENTION OF CHOLERA

1. All drinking water must be thoroughly boiled or chlorinated to kill all the germs.
2. All vegetables must be well washed before eating.
3. All members of the public must be vaccinated against attack by the disease.
4. Persons working with infected patients should always wash their hands clean.

TREATMENT OF CHOLERA

Cholera can kill and very quickly too. If a sick patient is known to be stooling and vomiting at the same time, consult the nearest hospital immediately.


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1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
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77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
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84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
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FIELD MACHINES
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PLANTERS
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SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION






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