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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

WHAT IS POPULATION IN ECOLOGY?


WHAT IS POPULATION?

In ecology, population is defined as the total number of organisms of the same species living together in a given area at a particular time.A population is a subset of individuals of one species that occupies a particular geographic area and, in sexually reproducing species, interbreeds. The geographic boundaries of a population are easy to establish for some species but more difficult for others. For example, plants or animals occupying islands have a geographic range defined by the perimeter of the island. In contrast, some species are dispersed across vast expanses, and the boundaries of local populations are more difficult to determine. A continuum exists from closed populations that are geographically isolated from, and lack exchange with, other populations of the same species to open populations that show varying degrees of connectedness. In an ecosystem, the community is made up of many different species.
In population studies of habitat, the following are usually the areas of studies











1.

TYPES OF ORGANISMS:

this involves the listing of the various types of population that are found under the population. It helps to determine the relationship that exists between the various organisms that co-exist within the community
2.

DOMINANCE:

the dominance refers to those species who exert a greater influence or control on the other members of the community. So the relative importance of a specie in a community is expressed by dominance. So dominance could be expressed in terms of, (i) their number (ii) their occupation of the largest area in the community (iii) possession of the Biomass and (iv) the largest contributor to the energy flow in the habitat. For a species to be dominant, it should possess some of these attributes



CHARACTERISTICS OF POPULATION

The characteristics of population simply the underlying factors by which a population is recognized. These characters are follows



i.

POPULATION SIZE:

population size refers to the total number of the species of the same kind in given area or habitat. A large population stands a better chance of surviving dangerous and unfavourable conditions such as fire, diseases, etc. while a small population can easily be wiped out.
ii.

POPULATION DENSITY:

population density is defined as the number of individual organisms per unit area or volume of the habitat. So mathematically, population density is equal to total population all over Area of habitat. Population density can be used to estimate the total number of a population or population size
iii.

POPULATION FREQUENCY:

this refers to the number of times an organism occurs within a given area of a habitat
iv.

PERCENTAGE COVER:

this refers to the area or space covered or occupied by a given species in its habitat and is expressed in percentage
v.

POPULATION GROWTH RATE:

this refers to the result of the influence of natality (birthrate) and mortality (death rate) of organisms in a given habitat


FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION

Factors which may affect population of organisms in a given area include
1.

NATALITY (birth rate):

this refers to the rate at which organisms give birth to new ones. This aspect of population, either plant or animals, lead to increase in population
2.

MORTALITY (death rate):

this refers to the rate at which organisms die in a habitat. Mortality generally lead to decrease in population
3.

IMMIGRATION (dispersal):

this is the movement of organisms from one habitat to another new habitat. This type of factor increases the population of the new area









4.

EMMIGRATION:

this the movement of organisms from a habitat due to food shortage or unfavourable conditions and sometimes can be for breeding purposes too. This however reduces the population of a habitat
5.

AVAILABILITY OF FOOD:

the availability of in a given habitat tends to increase that habitat through rapid reproduction and other organisms coming in to feed
6.

SEASONAL CLIMATIC CHANGES:

unfavourable climatic changes may result in the decrease of population since most organisms may die or migrate out of the habitat while the reverse is the case when the condition are favourable
7.

BREEDING PERIODS:

most organisms move out of the habitat during the mating or breeding seasons in search of mates or partners
8.

NATURAL DISASTERS:

natural disasters like fire, drought, floods and earthquakes may lead to decrease in population as many organisms would have died out or move out to a new habitat for safety


METHODS OF POPULATION STUDIES

There are practically two ways by which a population of a place can be determined. They are
1.

SAMPLING METHOD OF POPULATION STUDIES: this type or method of population studies is mainly or especially used in terrestrial habitat by making use of a gadget called QUADRAT

A quadrat is made of a square or rectangular wire, plastic, wooden or metal frame with predetermined area
2.

THE TRANSECT METHOD OF ESTIMATION OF POPULATION IN POPULATION STUDIES:

this involves the use of tape. The tape should be stretched with markings at intervals. The plants within the various intervals should be recorded. This procedure should be repeated a number of times until an accurate estimate of the number and types of plants in the habitat are obtained. The transect tape method of population studies is used specially to determine the total of trees or plants in a given community or habitat


HOW TO CONDUCT POPULATION STUDIES

The population size or total population and population density of a particular species in a terrestrial habitat can be estimated by the following procedures
1. Choose and locate the sample plot
2. Then identify the species in the plot
3. Measure the area with a measuring tape to know the area of the habitat
4. Throw the quadrat randomly at intervals for up to ten times
5. After each throw, the number of species within the area of quadrat is recorded
6. The density of population is by the average number of times the species occurs within the quadrat. They are thus written like these
i. Frequency of species=X
ii. Number of tosses= Y/10
iii. Average number of species per quadrat== X/Y/10=Z
iv. Area of quadrat ==1m
v. Density ==Z




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1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON







70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

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