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ENERGY TRANSFORMATION IN THE ECOSYSTEM


ENERGY TRANSFORMATION IN THE ECOSYSTEM

Energy exists in various forms

. These forms of energy are inter-convertible. They can be transformed from one form to another form.

Energy transformation is governed by the laws of thermodynamics.

In nature, energy transformation is brought about by living organisms. Their activities cause energy to flow through the ecosystem.

The sun is the ultimate and eternal source of energy for ecosystem on earth.






ENERGY FLOW IN AN ECOSYSTEM

Energy flow in the ecosystem is unidirectional/non-cyclic: which is, it is either stored or utilized. The light energy of the sun is absorbed by chlorophyll in green plants which is then used to produce carbohydrates. The chemical energy in the carbohydrate in then passed on to the food chain. When the primary consumer feeds on the plants and grasses/producers, the chemical energy is then passed along the food chain to the secondary consumer and then to the tertiary consumer/decomposer


What is energy loss in the ecosystem?

Energy is lost at each tropic level. For example, when herbivores, which are primary consumers feeds on a plant/producer, not all part of the plant is eaten. As a result not all energy in the plant-producer is consumed.

Plants lose energy during respiration and they do not utilize all the energy in preceding members.

Energy is also lost in respiration, excretion, movement and other metabolic activities.
In ecosystem, energy is lost in the following ways. Through
1. Vegetation
2. Soil
3. Air
4. Heat
5. Evaporation
6. Effects of wind
Depending on the type of vegetation and climatic factors, only 1-10% of the solar energy may be available to photosynthetic producers in most ecosystems.




WHAT IS THE LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS?

Thermodynamics ordinarily means heat changes. Heat is a form of energy and it can be changed or converted from one form to another form is governed by two laws.
These laws are called the first and second laws of thermodynamics

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
What this laws simply means is that you cannot create or destroy energy but you can convert it to another form of energy

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

The second law of thermodynamics states that in any conversion of energy from one form to another form, there is always a decrease in the amount of useful energy. It simply means that there is no 100% complete transformation of energy from one form to another


The application of the laws of thermodynamics to ecological phenomena or events

Every ecological event or phenomena can explained using the laws of thermodynamics.
EXPLAIN FOOD CHAIN USING THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Energy conversion or transfer in the food chain can be explain in the following ways
1.

Using the first law of thermodynamics to explain food chain:

In this portal, energy is generated through the sun and is transferred from the producer to the final consumer. The green plant transfers the energy to the primary consumers, which again transfers the energy to the secondary consumers. In all of the energy transfer, the energy from the sun remains constant
2.

Using the second law of thermodynamics to explain food chain:

While the energy is transferred to the next tropic level, part of it is lost as heat.
In other words, as the energy is transferred from the producer to the primary consumers, to secondary consumers, and then to the tertiary consumers, energy is lost as heat in each tropic level
It is then evident that there is no 100% energy transfer from one form or the other that there will not be energy loss


USING THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS TO EXPLAIN PYRAMID OF ENERGY


1.

Using the first law of thermodynamics to explain pyramid of energy:

In this, it is discovered that energy is transferred from one tropic level to another. The energy of the producer at the base of the pyramid is always higher and is transformed gradually from one stage of the tropic level to another. Even though the energy is transformed from one tropic level to the next successive level, the sum of the energy is still constant
2.

Using the second law of thermodynamics to explain pyramid of energy:

Here as the energy is transformed from tropic level to another, part of it is converted into heat which is lost, causing a progressive drop in successive tropic level





USING THE THERMODYNAMICS LAWS TO EXPLAIN THE FLOW OF ENERGY

1. Using the first law:
This states that as the producers converts the solar energy to useful energy, this energy is progressively transformed from one tropic level to the next.
It is important to note that the energy flow in a food chain is in one direction only

2.

Using the second law of thermodynamics to explain energy flow in an ecosystem:

Here the transfer of energy from one tropic level to another is not 100%. This means that energy is or cannot be completely transferred. This is to say that energy available for use by the next level or organism in the food chain starting from the producers is always on the reducing end till it gets to the tertiary consumers

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You can read some of most interesting topics below

Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR



RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING AND CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE/a>
149.
PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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