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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

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CULTIVATION OF CASSAVA (MANIHOT SPP)



CASSAVA (Manihot spp)

Cassava just like yam, is a root and tuber crop. It has underground roots which can be consumed by man and livestock animals after processing. It has other advantages over yam, in that it can grow in relatively poor soil and in low rainfall area. The root is also rich in carbohydrates.

Land Preparation of Cassava

The bush is cleared with cutlass. Stumping is done and hoe could be used to make heaps or ridges. Ploughing, harrowing and ridging can also be done mechanically.

Varieties/Cultivars of Cassava

There exist two main varieties: sweet cassava (Manihot palmata) and bitter cassava (Manihot utilissima). The latter contains some poisonous hydrocyanic acid in its root.

Climatic and soil requirement for cassava cultivation






Method of Cassava propagation :

By stem cuttings which are planted from March to September.

Planting date for cassava:

Cassava sticks or cuttings are planted from March to September.
Planting date: Cassava sticks or cuttings are planted from March to September

Spacing:

Cassava is spaced 1m by 1m

Planting methods for cassava :

A stem cutting of 25 - 30cm long is pushed into the ridge or heap slanty at an angle of45°and C of it buried. Sprouting occurs 7- 14 days later.

Cultural Practices in cassava cultivation

(i) Weeding: This is done regularly
(ii) Fertilizer Application: Apply 250kg/ha of NPK. Fertilizer four to six weeks after planning.


Maturity Period of cassava :

This occurs between 8 – 15months depending on varieties/

Cassava Harvesting process:

Use cutlass to remove some soil and pull the stem gently so that the tubers are pulled along or, use cassava puller.

Cassava Processing :

Cassava is processed into garri, foo foo, flour or livestock feed.
Storage: Cassava is stored in processed form in sack as garri (cassava flour or foo foo).

Pest of Cassava and control methods

(1) Variegated Grasshopper: Adults and nymphs eat up the leaves and young and eat up the tubers.
Control:
(i) Trapping
(ii) Shooting with gun
(iii) Wire fencing round the farm

Diseases of Cassava and control methods

(1)

Cassava mosaic disease :

It is caused by virus which is transmitted by a piercing and sucking insect (white flies).
Symptoms
Symptoms include vein clearing and distortion of the leaves and stunted plants
Control
(i) Grow resistant varieties
(ii) Uproot and burn infected plants
(iii) Use disease free planting materials
(iv)
(2)

Bacteria blight of cassava :

It is caused by bacteria which are transmitted by infected cuttings.
Symptoms
These include angular, water- soaked area of discoloured leaf tissue, blighting, wilting and reduction in yield.
Control:
(i) Use resistant varieties
(ii) Use lean and disease-free stem cuttings

(2)

Angular leaf spot of cassava:


It is caused by a fungus.






Symptoms: include spores which produce pale, brownish colour on affected leaves.
Control:
(i) Spray with fungicide, e.g. Bordeaux mixture.
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS





41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES