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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

CULTIVATION OF MAIZE(ZEA MAYS)


MAIZE (Zea mays)

Maize: also called corn, is a member of the grass family (Gramineae). It is a cereal crop which produces grains that can be used as food by human beings as well as livestock(read livestock management here). The seed/fruit of maize is a caryopsis, i.e, it has its epicarp fused with the mesocarp.

Land Preparation of maize
: This is done by clearing the land or bush with cutlass, making ridges or heaps manually with hoe, or mechanically by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.

maize Varieties/Cultivars:

These include dent maize, flint corn, flour corn, pop corn, sweet corn and pod corn.

Climatic and soil requirement for the cultivation of maize
Maize requires a temperature of 26°C - 300C, rainfall ofbetween 75cm - 1 5ocmper annum and a well drained sandy loamy soil ofpH6-7.

Method of maize propagation

Maize is propagated by seeds. The maize seeds can be planted manually by stick or cutlass, or mechanically by planter.

Planting date for maize

Early maize is planted between Marc b/April and late maize is July/August. Maize (early or late) is also planted depending on location and rainfall.

maize Seed rate for planting:

The quantity of seeds required to plant one hectare of land is 25kg- 3Okg/hectare; two to three seeds are also recommended per hole. Quantity of seeds used usually depends on spacmg or plant population desired.
Spacing: 90cm x 30cm at one seed per hole or 75cm x 25cm at two seeds per hole.
Planting: Planting can be done manually, using cutlass or mechanically by planters at two to three sees per hole at 2 – 4cm deep. Germination occurs four to seven days later.

Cultural Practices in maize production

(a) Supplying: Replanting of seeds to replace those seeds that did not germinate.
(b) Thinning: Removal of weak plants from a stand to give rise to one or two vigorous crop plants.
(c) Fertilizer Application: Apply N.P.K 15:15:15 (200kg/Ha) (four bags) at planting. Also apply 250 kg (five bags) or 150kg (three bags) of urea per hectare, five to six weeks after planting. Farmyard manure, poultry droppings/organic manure can also be applied as side dressing or by broadcast method.
(d) Weeding: this is done three to four times at regular intervals. Weeding can be done manually by hoeing, cutlassing, etc: or chemically with the use of specified herbicides with the use of specified herbicides; or mechanically with machine.
Control of pests and disease: This is done anytime at regular intervals or prevent it completely, using appropriate chemicals.





(e)

Maturity period for maize:

This takes up to two to three months (60-90 days) for wet maize, three to four months (90 - 120 days) for dry maize after planting.
Harvesting: Maize can be harvested by hand, sickle or corn picker by combined harvester. Maize matures 90-120 days after planting. It is harvested either green or dry. It is mostly harvested green for consumption when the silk dries and turns brown. Maize is harvested by plucking the cobs on a small scale and by machine.

Uses and Processing maize
Maize can be eaten either boiled or roasted or processed into corn flour, corn flakes or used for corn meal, beer, baking flour and livestock feed.

Storage of maize
Dried maize cobs can be stored either in cribs, rhumbus or in a fireplace, on a small scale or in silos, on a large scale.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER






80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE

126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF