CULTIVATION OF YAM (DIOSCOREA SPP)


YAM (Dioscorea spp)

Yam belongs to the family Dioscoreacae. It is a root and tuber crop popularly grown in West Africa and it is rich in carbohydrates.

Land Preparation of Yam

Cutlass is used to clear the bush or vegetation and heaps, ridges or mounds are made with hoe. It can also be done by ploughing, harrowing and ridging mechanically.

Varieties Of Yam or Cultivers

Important varieties include:
(i) Dioscorea rotundata – white yam
(ii) Dioscorea alata – water yam
(iii) Dioscorea bulbifera – aerial yam
(iv) Dioscorea cayenesis – yellow yam
Dioscorea domentorum – bitter yam


(v)

Climatic and soil requirements for Yam Cultivation :

Yam requires a temperature of 25C – 30C; rainfall of between 100cm – 180cm per annum: abundant sunshine and a well-drained sandy-loamy soil, rich in humus.

Method of propagation of propagation of yam and the propagation materials :

Yam is propagated by the following materials: yam setts, yam seeds or yam mini-setts.

Seed rate of yam:

one seed yam or sett per hole; three to five tones of seed yam per hectare is required.

how to Plant yam :

Open a hole on the heap. Place one yam sett inside with the cut surface turned upward and slantly place at an angle of 45 before covering it with soil. They cut yam sett should be dried under the sun and dusted with chemicals such as aldrin dust before planting. This prevents rottening and pest attack of the sett.



Yam Spacing:

Spacing is 90cm x 100cm, while yam mini-setts is 25cm x 100cm. sprouting occurs three to six weeks after planting.

Cultural practices in the propagation of yam

(i) Mulching: This is the covering of the heaps or ridges with dry leaves to reduce soil temperature, conserve soil moisture and prevent rottening of yam setts.
(ii) Regular weeding: this should be done regularly to control pest and reduce weed competition with crops for nutrients.
(iii) Application of fertilizer: Apply 200kg (four bags) of N.P.K. fertilizer per hectare three months after planting, by ring method.
(iv) Staking: The yam should be staked with strong sticks or bamboo. It ensures adequate exposure of the leaf surface to sunlight and increases yield.
(vi) Training of vine: This is done regularly after staking to ensure even spreading and neatness of the vines to receive sunlight.


Period of Maturity period of Yam:

Yam matures in 8-12 months after planting.

Process of Yam Harvesting:

Dig the soil gently with cutlass to remove tuber from the soil. Processing: Yam tubers are processed into yam powder or flour or consumed locally. Storage: Yam tubers are stored in barns. It can also be stored in form of yam flour and in dried peeled yam tubers.

Pests of Yam

(1) Yam tuber b makes holes on tubers, resulting in low tuber marketability.
Control:
(i) Apply insecticide like BHC at planting
(ii) Dust yam sett with aldrin dust
(iii) Practice crop rotation
(2) Yam shoot beetles: Young larvae cluster on vine tips. Adult feed on yam leaves and cause vine to die or defoliate.
(3)
(4)
(10)

How to Control pests of yam

(i) Spray yam plant with insecticides e.g. BHC
(ii) By hand picking
(iii) Dust with chemical like Agrocide 3 powder.


(13) Rodents: Rats and rabbits eat up tubers
Control: Set traps to catch the rodents.

Diseases of Yam

(1) Yam mosaic disease: It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by a piercing and sucking insect.
Symptoms: Symptoms include a mosaic pattern and chlorosis of leaves. It cause stunting of affected plant.

How to Control diseases of Yam

(i) Grow resistant varieties
(ii) Spray with insecticides


(2) Yam rot: It is caused by bacteria which are spread by splashes of rain and insects.
Symptoms: Liquid oozes out from infected tuber. White – brown liquid emits with punget odour.
Control:
(i) Destroy all affected yam
(ii) Apply aldrin dust
(iii) Practice crop rotation


(3) Yam leaf spot: It is caused by a fungus (Cercospora spp) which is spread by wind.
Symptoms: Symptoms include dead spots on the leaves
Control: Spray yam plants with appropriate fungicides.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES

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