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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE Farm mechanization has the following advantages 1. ...

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FARM ANIMAL REPRODUCTION


ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

MEANING OF REPRODUCTION
Reproduction is the ability in animal to give birth to young ones. The purpose of reproduction is to ensure continuity of life.
The reproductive system includes all the organs and tissues concerned with reproduction in animals.
Farm animals reproduce sexually and are mostly viviparous because they bear their young ones alive. Poultry birds on the other hand are oviparous because they produce their young ones by hatching eggs after an incubation period.

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN MAMMALS AND POUILTRY

The reproductive system includes all the organs and tissues concerned with reproduction in animals. Reproduction is the ability in animals. Reproduction is the ability in an animal to give birth to young ones. The purpose of reproduction is to ensure continuity of life.






Farm animals reproduce sexually and are mostly viviparous because they bear their young ones alive. Poultry birds on the other hand are oviparous because they produce their young ones by hatching eggs after an incubation period.

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

The male reproductive system includes the testes which produce the spermatozoa and sex hormone called testosterone which aids the development of male sexual secondary characteristics. The spermatozoa are specifically produced in the seminiferous tubules of testes during meiotic cell division by a process called spermatogenesis. The testes are suspended or protected by scrotal sac (scrotum) outside the abdominal avity to enable sperm ells to the produced at desired temperature.


The epididymis ensures the storage and maturation of sperm cells in the testes. The testes are connected to the uterus masculinus by vas deferens which transports sperms from testes to the uterus masculinus where matured spermatozoa are stored until they are released during coitus or mating. Blood vessels called spermatic cord supply nutrients and oxygen spermatic cord supply nutrients and oxygen to the testes. Located along the urethra are accessory glands which are the coper’s gland. They prduce slimy alkaline fuild which aids the movement of spermatozoa. This fluid together with the spermatozoa results in the formation of semen. The urethra is a uro-genital organ which helps to inject sperms into the vigina as well as the removal of urine. The urethra ends externally in penis.

FEMALE REPORUCTION SYSTEM:

The female reproductive system includes the ovaries which produce the ovum or ova (eggs) enclose by the graffian follicles and some hormones such as the oestrogen.
A matured egg or ovum is released from the follicle in the ovary into the oviduct. This process is called ovulation.
As the ovum or egg is released from the ovary, the female animal comes into ‘heat’ and is willing to make with the male animal.




Fertilization

, which is the fusion of the male sex cell (spermatozoa) and the female sex cell (egg or ovum) takes place in the fallopian tubes or the oviduct. When the egg is fertilized by the spermatozoa, the fertilized egg anchors itself to the wall of the uterus. This process is called implantation. The development of the foetus takes place in the uterus. Below the uterus is the vigina which receives the spermatozoa during corpulation. The female reproductive system terminates with an external opening called the vulva.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMBRYO (FOETUS):

The fertilized eggs is implanted in the uterus where the development of the embryo takes place. Soon, a number of embryonic membranes develop round the embryo. These are: the chorion, the allantois and the yolksac. The amnion forms a sac in which the embryo lies and is filled with ammonitic fluid. Hence, the embryo is held in a liquid environment which acts as a buffer or “shock absorber”. This ensures the protection of the embryo. The allantoises forms a sac which is excretory, respiratory and nutritive in function. It contributes to the formation of placenta. The yolk sac provides the food during the early stages of embryonic development. The chorinon forms the outmost membrane, enveloping all these structures.
The placenta established an intimate connection between the embryo and the mother which aids nutritional, respiratory and excretory needs of the embryo (foetus). The placenta and the embryo are connected by the umbilical cord which develops from the allantois. The parental blood supply is linked to the foetal blood supply through this umbilical cord.
At the end of the gestation period (from fertilization to birth), parturition (giving birth) takes place during which the young animals is pushed out through the vagina. The remaining part of the embryonic membrane known as after-birth is sent out after the birth of the foetus.


REPRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN BIRDS

In the male bird, the two testes are located inside the body. A narrow tube connects them to the cloaca in which the tube ends as a small raised papilla.
In the female, only the left ovary is functioning,. The ingle ovary produces ova (eggs) in capsules attached to the ovary by short stalks. The ovary also produces the yolk.
The infundibulum receives the yolk releases by the ovary. Albumen and chalaza (which hold the yolk and germ cell in position) are formed in the magnum. The two shell membranes and the shape of the egg are formed in the isthmus. The egg shell is finally formed in the uterus after which the egg is laid through the cloaca. Fertilization of the egg can take place as soon as the egg enters the oviduct when spermatozoa are present.
Fertilization occurs before the formation of the albumen.




FUNCTIONS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

(i) It ensures the continuity of species by gamete for motion, coitus, mating or servicing
(ii) It ensures the formation of eggs and spermatozoa (sperm cells).
(iii) It ensures the production of reproductive hormones.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION