WHAT IS SYMBIOSIS AND COMMENSALISMSYMBIOSIS
Symbiosis is a close association between two organisms in which the two of them benefits from the association. Symbiosis is therefore a beneficial association where each member is called a SYMBIONT
EXAMPLES OF SYMBIOTIC ASSOCIATION1. alga and fungus in lichen:
Lichen is made up of two organisms, namely a fungus and a green alga which lives in a close relationship or association
In this association, the alga benefits because the fungus encloses and protects it from physical damage and from drying up. The alga uses some of the water absorbed by the fungus while the fungus benefits by using part of the food manufactured by the green alga
PROTOZOA IN THE INTESTINE OF TERMITESThe protozoa help the termite which is a biting and chewing insect to digest the cellulose in the food while protozoa are protected by the termites
NITROGEN FIXATION BACTERIA IN THE ROOT NODULES OF LEGUMINOUS PLANTSA bacterium called rhizobium leguminosarium living in the root nodules of leguminous plants obtain nutrients from the cells of the host plant, grow and reproduce there. In return, the rhizobium fixes nitrogen directly into the plant from the atmosphere, thereby increasing the nitrogen requirement of leguminous plants
BACTERIA IN THE RUMEN OF RUMINANTSBacteria and other protozoa n the rumen of ruminant animals like cattle, goats and sheep help the ruminant to digest cellulose to sugars, synthesize amino acids and other vitamins from other substances while ruminant in turn provide protection, shelter and food for the bacteria
FLOWERS AND INSECTSInsects obtain food from flowers in the form of pollen and nectars while in turn, the insects brings about cross-pollination I the plant they visit, thus enabling plants to produce sexually
COMMENSALISMWhat is commensalism?
Commensalism is a relationship or association between two organisms of different species, in which one, the commensal, benefits while the other, the host, is not adversely affected in any way. This form of relationship between two organisms has no known effects on the each of the organisms involved.
It is simply stated that commensalism is an association between two organisms in which one of the organism known as the commensal benefits from the union and the other is harmed or affected in any way.
EXAMPLES OF COMMENSALISM1.
remora fish and sharkThe remora fish attaches itself to the body of a shark which carries it about. The remora fish feeds on the food particles left over by the shark, by so doing the remora obtains food, protection and shelter from the shark whereas the shark is neither harmed nor benefitted from the association.
oyster and crabThe habitation of a crab is in the Oyster shell in which case the crab is protected yet no harm is done to the Oyster
man and intestinal bacteriaSome bacteria in the large intestine of man feeds on digested food there. The bacteria receive food and protection from the man whereas man neither gains nor suffers any disadvantage from the presence of the bacteria
don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.
You can read some of most interesting topics below
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
Please feel free to share while using our comment box below.
Thanks for sharing