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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

SYMBIOSIS AND COMMENSALISM


WHAT IS SYMBIOSIS AND COMMENSALISM

SYMBIOSIS
Symbiosis is a close association between two organisms in which the two of them benefits from the association. Symbiosis is therefore a beneficial association where each member is called a SYMBIONT

EXAMPLES OF SYMBIOTIC ASSOCIATION

1. alga and fungus in lichen:
Lichen is made up of two organisms, namely a fungus and a green alga which lives in a close relationship or association
In this association, the alga benefits because the fungus encloses and protects it from physical damage and from drying up. The alga uses some of the water absorbed by the fungus while the fungus benefits by using part of the food manufactured by the green alga
2.

PROTOZOA IN THE INTESTINE OF TERMITES

The protozoa help the termite which is a biting and chewing insect to digest the cellulose in the food while protozoa are protected by the termites







3.

NITROGEN FIXATION BACTERIA IN THE ROOT NODULES OF LEGUMINOUS PLANTS

A bacterium called rhizobium leguminosarium living in the root nodules of leguminous plants obtain nutrients from the cells of the host plant, grow and reproduce there. In return, the rhizobium fixes nitrogen directly into the plant from the atmosphere, thereby increasing the nitrogen requirement of leguminous plants
4.

BACTERIA IN THE RUMEN OF RUMINANTS

Bacteria and other protozoa n the rumen of ruminant animals like cattle, goats and sheep help the ruminant to digest cellulose to sugars, synthesize amino acids and other vitamins from other substances while ruminant in turn provide protection, shelter and food for the bacteria

5.

FLOWERS AND INSECTS

Insects obtain food from flowers in the form of pollen and nectars while in turn, the insects brings about cross-pollination I the plant they visit, thus enabling plants to produce sexually

COMMENSALISM

What is commensalism?
Commensalism is a relationship or association between two organisms of different species, in which one, the commensal, benefits while the other, the host, is not adversely affected in any way. This form of relationship between two organisms has no known effects on the each of the organisms involved.
It is simply stated that commensalism is an association between two organisms in which one of the organism known as the commensal benefits from the union and the other is harmed or affected in any way.

EXAMPLES OF COMMENSALISM

1.

remora fish and shark

The remora fish attaches itself to the body of a shark which carries it about. The remora fish feeds on the food particles left over by the shark, by so doing the remora obtains food, protection and shelter from the shark whereas the shark is neither harmed nor benefitted from the association.
2.

oyster and crab

The habitation of a crab is in the Oyster shell in which case the crab is protected yet no harm is done to the Oyster
3.

man and intestinal bacteria

Some bacteria in the large intestine of man feeds on digested food there. The bacteria receive food and protection from the man whereas man neither gains nor suffers any disadvantage from the presence of the bacteria








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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS


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