BREEDS OF GOAT AND ITS MANAGEMENT


Goat

Goats are very common farm animals all over Nigeria.
(a) Importance of Goat Keeping
1. Goat meat is cherished by many people and it is a rich source of protein
2. Goat milk is easily diucstible and has manv advantages over cow milk
3. Goat hair) is used in making carpets and bags.
4. Goat provide income to the keeper.
5. Goat provides hides and skin used in making leather works.
6. Goat are used for many festivals and ceremonies.
7. The droppings provide manure to soils for growing crops.


(b) Breed of Goat: The following are the common breeds of goat in Nigeria:
(a) Dwarf goat
(b) Sokoto Red or Maradi
(c) Sahel or Desert goat
(d) Kano Brown
(e) Borno Red







Imported or exotic breeds include:
(a) Saanen
(b) Anglo-Nubian
(c) Toggen-burg
(d) Angora

(c) Some terms associated with goat keeping:
1. Doe: adult female goat
2. Billy: adult male goat
3. Kid: a young goat of either sex usually under one year old.
4. Goat meat: meat from goat
5. Castrate: castrated male goat
6. Kidding: the act of giving birth in goats,

(d) Goat breeding: Goats mature at a very early age. It is advisable that both the male and .female should reach the age of nine months and twelve to eighteen mouths respectively before being bred.

Oestrus Cycle: 21-28 days. He til period: 24-48 hours.

Since ovulation (shedding of the ova) occurs towards the end i heat, the best time to mate the doe is about 12 hours before the end of heat. The signs of heat includes:

1. bleating (irritating noise making)
2. riding other goats
3. tail shaking
4. swollen and reddened vulva
5. tendency to urinate frequently

gestation period: 5 months or 150 days.

Goat kid three times in two years. One to three kids are normally given birth to at one kidding or parturition.

Young kids should be allowed to take their mothers colostrum.

Weaning: 4-6 months of age.

Castration: males .not required for breeding should be castrated at one to four weeks of age. The remaining ones can then be managed under any of the following management systems

(c) Management Systems for Goats
Goat may be managed under:
1. Extensive system Intensive system
2. Intensive system.
3. Semi-intensive system






4.
1. Extensive System: Under this system, the goats are given all freedom to wander about in search of feed tor themselves. They h id on grasses and kitchen wastes. No deliberate attempt is made to house the goats although they are sometimes provided shelter at nights.

Goats reared under this system are very destructive as they feed on almost all economic plants and even human food.
2. Intensive system: In this system the goats are continuously housed. Feed and water are provided for them in the pens. The houses provide protection against environmental hazards and predators. The destructive aspect of goats is also controlled.
The pens, water troughs and feeding devices are cleaned regularly to ensure good hygiene. De-worming and spraying against parasites are common practices with goats reared under the intensive systems of management, i mats do well under this system of rearing.
3. Semi- intensive system: This involves rearing of goats in pastures. The goats are rotated from pasture. This is called controlled grazing. Some pens are provided in the pasture land. It combines the advantages of intensive system management.
Tethering is generally part of the semi-intensive method of goat keeping since fences are expensive. Tethering involves tying it a rope to a stake or tree. They feed from that stand.
The areas they can browse depends on the length of the rope. It is better lo tether goats in small huts with roofs or under tree shades where forage crops are brought to them in order to avoid harsh environmental conditions. This system of management is cheap.

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL





79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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TYPES OF PIG AND MANAGEMENT



Importance of Pigs

Pigs are very important farm animals because they provide the following products:
(a) Pork: The meat of pigs with thick layer of fat.
(b) Bacon: salted or smoked dry meat from the back or sides of a pig.
(c) Lard: fats from pig, used for various industrial purposes as well as domestic cooking.
(d) Bristles: hairs from pigs used in making brushes which are used fine artists.
(e) Pigs also provide source of income to the farmers.

(b) Some common terms used in Piggery
1. Boar: Adult male pig
2. Sow: Adult female pig
3. Gilt: a young sow which is not yet an adult
4. Piglei: young pigs of either sex
5. Litter: all the newly born young ones of a pig
6. Hog: castrated male pig
7. Farrowing; the process of giving birth to young ones by sows
8. Lard: fats from pigs
9. Ham: the upper part of a pjgs leg.
10. Pork: the meat of a pig.

Breeds of Pigs

The commonest local breed of pig is the local West African This is small in si/e and can be found in muddy areas of South Nigeria.






However, the temperate breeds of pigs do better in the trojf than the local types. These imported breeds include:

(a) Large white
(b) Land race
(c) Duroc
(d) Large black

(e) Poland China
(f) Yorkshire
(g) Tain worth
(h) Chester white


(d) Pig Management
(i) Conditions for Keeping Temperate Breeds of Pig in Tropics: Pigs as a whole are non- sweating animals, therefore they require special conditions for management. They do ben a temperature of 16"C. Therefore, they require cool condition As most pigs are pigmented. shades should be made available the lards.

Wherever pigs are kept, there should be adequate water surf in the form of a wallow or sprinkling system, and a clean surf for drinking.

In the Southern part of Nigeria, the pigs are preferably managed, in-doors and the buildings screened from flies. Most outdoors are liable in worm And tsetse-fly infestation.

Pigs prefer to lie on dry surface when sleeping, so drainage in Pens is essential. The pens must be scrubbed daily.
This helps to check internal parasites. Dry grasses spread on the floor of the pens every evening am morning.
(ii) Housing: An ideal Pigs house is a building containing pens of which six are for farrowing and suckling, out hoar and the remaining seven for the fatteners and growers.
For the purposes of management, pigs can be subdivided into:
1. Piglets (young ones still suckling)
2. Weaners (Piglets that have stopped suckling)
3. Fatteners
4. Boars (adult males used for breeding)
5. Sows (adult females used for breeding).
The walls of the pig pens are usually low not exceeding 1 metre high. Pigs are very destructive animals and can easily eat up ain floor made of weak concrete. The mixture should therefore be such that can withstand their destructive activities. The floor also should be rough to avoid slipping off. A Pig's house must contain the pen proper, and a run for sun light. The whole building should be screened against Hies. This is very necessary in humid areas where tse-tse flie are very many.

The feeding troughs and waterers are also made of good concrete mixture. each pig is allowed 25-30 cm of feeding space.

(iii) Farrowing Pens: These contain farrowing or guard rails 20 cm horn the wafls and 30 cm high. These can be made of 5cm water pipes or 7 ½ cm hard wood. The rails provide an area where the piglets can be pushed into after birth without the danger of the sow lying on them.
(iv) Keep Feeding: Creep feeding is the feed of piglets separate Irom their mothers. This is necessary because the nutritional needs of the piglets and that of the dams (mother) are quite different. Leeds suitable for the sow are too coarse and not palatable enough for the piglets. Similarly, the feeds suitable for the piglets are too expensive for the sows. Creep feeds are provided on small ighs and served in such a way that the sou cannot get at them. A creep feeding place can be made by barricading off a corner of the piglets can get in while the dam cannot.
(v) Breeding: All breeding pigs both sows and gilts should have at least 12-14 teats in their udder: Gilts and boars can be bred together until they are four months old to be separated thereafter.






Gilts are served when 7-8 months old while a boar is ready for service when eight months old and can be used for service till it is 5-6 years old. During oestrus (heat period), a sow sheds a large number of ova. For complete fertilization, a sou should be served twice during oestrus, that is at 12th hours and 36lh hour after the on set of oestrus because it lasts 2-5 days. Oestrus recurs at intervals of 21 days. Gestation period is about 114 days.

(vi) Farrowing: The pig keeper must regulate the interval of lifter (groups of young ones) so that the sows do not farrow (give birth) at the same time. He needs a steady inflow of young pigs arriving at about the same rate as he is disposing the mature ones. This is achieved by regulating the time of sen ice of the sows by boars. Under good management, a sow can produce two litters a year. A sow can successfully produce 8 to 14 piglets per litter. An in-pig (pregnant) Sow must be brought into the farrowing pen a week before farrowing. .Litter (e.g. dry grasses) should be provided which she can use to build a nest. The nest should not be swept out while cleaning the pen. During farrowing, it is-necessary for the pig keeper to he around to provide assistance to ensure the safe delivery and survival of the piglets.

(vii) Suckling: The piglets start suckling immediately alter birth. Generally, each piglet keeps its own teat. For this reason, (he number of piglets normally do not exceed the numbers of teals. Excess piglets can be raised by hand (artificially) or foster mother. After three weeks, a creep should be provided to feed the piglets with solid feeds. They are weaned after 5-8 weeks. Weaning should be done gradually by taking the sou out of the pen for increasing periods during the day. This avoids any set-back at weaning. A well developed piglet should be 35% by weight at time of weaning.
The lactation period of a pig is 12weeks; and a sow comes on heat 2-5 days after drying off.

(viii) Castration of Piglets: Male piglets that arc not required for breeding (reproduction) are castrated at the age of six weeks. This is to check indiscriminate mating. Castration of a pig does not affect the odour, flavor, or the tenderness of the meat.
(i) Fattening: In the tropics, pigs are mainly produced for Few are raised for bacon or lard. Pigs are usually fattened groups of the same age and the type of ration required for rattening is different from that required by piglets or sows. Also, (here are changes in rations to suit different fattening stages. A good porker weighing about 60kg should be produced in 5 months. Hogs (castrated males) usually fatten faster than gilts of the same age and breed. Pig ration for different ages are often pit-pared by feed mills. The recommended basic rations are:
(a) Creed feed: 1 – 5 weeks






(b) Weaner's diet: 5-8 weeks
(c) Grower's diet: As from 8 weeks (35-55kg)
(d) Fattener's diet: from 55kg to slaughter weight of 90-100kg.
(e) Breeder's diet: fed to sows and boars used for breeding from weaning age.
(x) Hygiene: Pig's house should be kept clean always to prevent pesi and disease attack. Common parasites of pigs are round norm, ticks, tsetse flies. The common diseases include: swine trvcr. anthrax, swine dysentery, pneumonia, enteritis and others, These can be prevented by maintaining good hygiene in the pig's house.

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You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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Thanks for sharing

TYPES OF CATTLE, CATTLE MANAGEMENT AND TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH CATTLE



Types of Cattle

There are different types of cattle depending on the purpose for which they are kept. These include:

1. Beef type cattle: Those kept for beef or meat production purposes, e.g. Ndama. Muturu. Keteku. etc.

2. Dairy cattle: Those kept for milk production purposes, e.g. white fulani. Buraji. etc.

3. Workcattle: These are cattle kept for work purposes. They arc used to do odd jobs in farms like
pulling of ploughs, e.g. Sokoto gudali. Kanrej. etc.

4. Dual purpose cattle: These are kept for more than one purpose. They could he kept for milk production and at the same time for beef production, e.g. Sokoto gudali.

13. Oestrus cycle: the time interval between one heat period and another.
14. Gestation Period: This is the period of pregnancy. In cows it last lor 281-283 days i.e. about 9 months.
15. Udder: The breast of cows.

(c) Types of Cattle
There are different types of cattle depending on the purpose for which they are kept. These include:

1. Beef type cattle: Those kept for beef or meat production purposes, e.g. Ndama. Muturu. Keteku. etc.

2. Dairy cattle: Those kept for milk production purposes, e.g. white fulani. Buraji. etc.

3. Workcattle: These are cattle kept for work purposes. They arc used to do odd jobs in farms like
pulling of ploughs, e.g. Sokoto gudali. Kanrej. etc.

4. Dual purpose cattle: These are kept for more than one purpose. They could he kept for milk production and at the same time for beef production, e.g. Sokoto gudali.

(d) Breeds of cattle
The following are common breeds of cattle in Nigeria

(i) Humpless Cattle: Krui, Ndama, Muturu
(ii) Humped or Xebu Cattle: Red bororo. Sokoto gudali, Shuwa Cattle, white Fulani

(b) Foreign or exotic breeds: These can be grouped into two:
(i) Dairy breeds: e.g. Holstein Friesian. Brown Swiss. Red Den and New Jersey.
(ii) Beef breeds: e.g. Hereford. Aberdeen angus. Red devon. Etc.

(c) Management Systems in Cattle
Cattle can be managed under any of the following systems:






(i) Extensive System: This is the traditional method of cattle production. It is commonly practiced in tropical countries of the this system, cattle are moved from one grazing land to the other depending on the availability of grass.

Most cattle in Nigeria are reared under this system. When become scarce in the dry season, the animals are moved Is where there is denser vegetation. The animals are In graze under the control of a herdsman.


Advantages of the system
1. The system is cheap since no money is spent on feeding the animals
2. Some parasites such as ticks and worms can be checked since the animals do not remain in one place for a long time.

Disadvantages of the system
1. Much land is required to practice the system.
2. The animals do not perform maximally in terms of milk or beef production especially when dry season comes.
3. No adequate records can be kept about the animals.
4. Animals are exposed to various dangers such as weather hazards
5. Diseases cannot be easily controlled.

(ii) Intensive System: Under the intensive system of management the cattle are housed in pens or kraals. Feed and water are them in the pens.
Advantages
1. It does not waste land
2. Records are easily kept
3. Weather hazards are minimized
4. Diseases and pests are easily controlled
5. The performance of the animals is very good in terms of meat and milk production
Disadvantages
1. It is very expensive due to the cost of erecting the buildings
2. Contagious disease is often a problem
iii. Semi-Intensive System: This is where cattle are kept with some restriction and are usually provided accommodation at nights or during bad weather. It is a bridge between the extensive a intensive systems of management.
(f) Management Practices
The life of cattle can he divided into three stages like poultry, namely:
1. Calf hood
2. Growers
3. Adulthood.

(a) Rearing of calves: Calves could be regarded as animals from birth till they attain the age of six months after which they becomw growers.

(i) Calf Buildings or Pens: Calves are best reared indoors in the tropics as calves are likely to be easily infected with internal parasites round in pastures. Besides, calves do better with young and palatable grasses. It is difficult to keep grassing fields at this conditions. Such should be cut from the pastures and fed to calves in Pens. The roof of a calf pen is simple. It may be of zinc or asbestos roof over concrete floor. This should be well drained. Side walls are not necessary. The sides of the pens are screened to keep off flies.
(ii) Management of Calves: Immediately after calving a good cow takes care of the calf and endeavor to protect and secure it, The dam immediately begins to remove the mucus covering the body of the calf by licking it. The farmer has to remove this it he mother is careless. The umbilical cord has to he cut and treated with iodine to check infection. The calf may suckle the dam. If the dam is milked for human use. the calf may be bucket-fed. Whichever is the method, the milk produced by the dam for the first three to four days called colostrum must be fed to the calf. In general, a calf is fed milk ration up to 8% of its body weight a day or 4 to 6 litres, in three feeds. The milk to be fed must be warmed to 29°C, the body temperature of a calf, him cold milk may result in calf diarrhea called Accour. The bucket used in feeding must be scrubbed with soap after each feeding.
It should be remembered that a calf does not function as a until it is few weeks old. At birth the capacity of is 70% of the four stomach chambers, whereas in the cow it is on 7%. Therefore, a calf can only take solid when it is up to three weeks old. A suitable ration at this stage is
Palm kernel meal - 50 parts
Guinea corn dusa - 25 parts
Groundnut cake - 25 parts
Feed 1 to 1.5kg of this ration in a day. The milk feed is then reduced: young succulent grasses-are ted in addition. The calf is finally weaned from milk when 12 to 14 weeks old.
At every stage, water must be made available to calves every day.

(ii) Dehorning: This is the process of preventing the appearance of the horns. Dehorning is essential with dairy animals. Bull calves proposed for work should not be dehorned. This is to provide points of attachment for farm implements.

Dehorning should be performed when a calf is a week old.
This is done by cauterizing the horn bud by either rubbing with a caustic stick till near bleeding or by the use of cylindrical hot iron pressed for a second on the rim of horn bud.
Dehorning helps to reduce space occupied by animals and prevent injuries arising from fighting

(iv) Castration: This is preventing the development, or the entire ol the testicles. This is best done when a bull calf is ten days old A very sharp knife, crushers or rubber ring is used for. lilts pin pose. The burdizzo bloodless castraclor can be used safely at any age. Castration helps to prevent indiscriminate breeding and also makes animals fatten up faster.
(v) Earmarking: For the purpose of distinguishing the animals, the ' ealves are marked on the ear as early as possible with a plier or. punching tool.
(vi) Nose Puncturing: Bull calves proposed for work should have their noses punctured. Nose rings should be inserted. These rings help to control the animals later.


(b) Rearing of Growers (Heifers): The management of heifers is divided into two stages. The first stage is from six months old till the time of first service which is approximately 27 months. The other stage is from the time of the first service till calving at approximately three years and one month. It is cheaper to rear heifers out doors under rotational grazing where grasses are adequate. Grazing is sufficient during the wet season. During the dry season, grazing should be supplemented with good silage, hay or potato vines. In addition. 1 to 1.5kg of concentrate should be given. The concentrate could be made up as follows:

1 ½ parts cotton seed.
1 part guinea corn seed.
½ part dusa (guinea chaff).
3% mineral mixture.
OR
3 parts guinea corn seeds.
1½ parts groundnut cake.
3% mineral mixture.
The mineral mixture could be made out with
40 parts of common salt.
20 parts of bone meal.
40 parts of lime.

Heifers come on heat when 20 months old. The best age for the first service is 27months. Gestation (period of pregnancy) is about 9 months or 283days. During the gestation period, the constitution and the life of the heifer change. It continues to grow to bear calf and prepare to produce milk for the young calf. The heifers should be given a better treatment particularly in feeding and handling, in dry season, grazing alone is enough. In dry season, hay and silage should be fed with concentrate in addition to grazing.








Two months before calving, the heifer should be brought to the milking herd to accustom it to handling. It should be fed heavily.
The heavy feeding before calving is known as "steaming up".
All heifers must be vaccinated against contagious abortion when 4 – 8months months old and against rinderpest when eight months old.

(i) Management and feeding during milking: It is not essential to over-expose milking animals to sun more than is necessary. 1 hcv should be encouraged to graze at night. Concentrates ihtnilil be fed both in the pasture and in the yards. Shelters Should be constructed both in the grazing field and in the yards; shelters should be open to the prevailing winds. Water sprays and air fan should be installed in the yards to keep the fliiiinal.s as cool as possible. Whenever possible, dairy animals Should be reared indoors and this must he the practice in imithrrn Nigeria to check tsetse-flies.

Out-door cows should be rotationally grazed. It is best to move animals daily. The best method is close grazing or close , By this method, the animals are given exactly the area that the need for one grazing. This is achieved by fencing and if need be by tethering the animals.
Grazing alone is sufficient for the production of 4.5 litres of K Above this, they should be given concentrates according to the live weight of the animal and the quantity of milk produced. Feed the concentrate twice a day while milking is going on. A miicenlrate mixture consists of:
3 parts guine corn grains
2 parts groundnut cake
3 parts palm kernel meal
2 parts dusa
3 per cent mineral mixture

This should be fed at the rate of ¼ kg of mixture for each 4.5 litres of milk produced.

(ii) Milking: Milking should he done twice a day, in the morning and in the evening. It is essential when milking a cow tin the first lime to prevent her from being frightened or getting excited. Tools for milking should not be associated with pain the cow will never let down milk. Always milk quickly. Before milking operation, the cow has to be stimulated. The pull of the calf on the teat of the udder of the cow gives the stimulus. The action of the calf could be imitated when hand milking is used. Dry hands should be used. Two teats are pulled alternatively each occasion into the bucket. It is necessary to clean the with warm water before milking.
Cow may not let down milk if the calves are not near. Therefore the calves may be brought near such cows. During milking, all the milk must be extracted from the udder, milking is not complete, there is the tendency for the cow to drop off too soon. When a cow is to be dried off. it is essential restrict milking gradually.

The first heat occurs about 50 days after calving and it recurs i average of 21 days, if there is no service or if there is pregnancy. It is best to service the animals on about the 85th days after calving. This results in calving at 12 months interval. Older cows should be milked for 305 days and dried off preparatory for calving in two months. Heifers should get longer drying periods. They should be milked only for nine months afl dried off for three months.

Dry cows should subsist on grazing alone until 8-12 weeks from calving when they should receive 1kg of concentrate a day
(c) Management of Bull: The general feeding and management of young bulls should be similar to those of heifer. When mature, they should be fed as dry cows.
(i) Stud Bulls: These are bulls used for service. Bulls are used service when they attain the age of two years. They reach their peak breeding power from three to six years. A young bull of service one or two times a week. Older bulls can service five tinier a week. A bull may be allowed to service cows in a year.

(ii) Work Bulls: Bulls for work should be trained to draw ploughs when they are two years old. Bull calves intended for work should be castrated at a very early stage.

During the wet season, grazing alone is sufficient to maintain the animals and produce three hours of work per day. For each additional hour of work ½kg of dusa should be fed in addition.
In dry season, feed up to 6kg of mixed fodders in addition to grazing and extra ½kg of dusa or its equivalent for each hour of work. For three weeks before ploughing begins, feed 1.5kg of 'I in addition to grazing,


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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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Terms Associated with Cattle Production1. Bull: an adult male cattle
2. Cow: adult female cattle.
3. Bullock or steet or Slag: a castrated male cattle.
4. Heifer: a young female cattle which has not had a calf, usually under I2 months old.
5. Yearling: a young cattle usually between 12 to 24 months.
6. Veal: the beef of young cattle.
7. Vealers: calves reared for veal production. They are usually slaughtered when 3 months old.
8. Colostrum: a kind of milk produced by a cow three to four days alter delivery.
9. Calving: the act of deliver in cows.
10. Servicing: mating of a cow by a bull.
11. Castration: removal of the male testes.
12. Heat period: the period when the cow is ready to receive the bull for servicing. It occurs mid-way within the oestrus cycle.

SYSTEMS OF POULTRY MANAGEMENT



What is Poultry?

The word Poultry refers to all birds that man has been able to rear over the years. He has decided to rear or domesticate them because of their economic value to him. Such birds include:

(a) fowls or chickens
(b) turkey
(c) ducks
(d) guinea fowl
(e) pigeons
(f) geese
(g) ostriches
(h) game birds, e.g. parrot. Importance of Poultry: Poultry provides the following:
1. Money - through the sale of eggs and its meat
2. Eggs - source of protein
3. Meat (chicken) - source of protein
4. Feathers - for making high quality pillows and mattresses dropping and it is very rich in plant nutrients.
5. Poultry manure (Guano) – this is obtained from the birds dropping and it is very rich in plant nutrients
6. Game - some birds such as the parrot and male chicken are used for games.







Some terms associated with poultry

– Adult male fowl
Drake – Adult male duck
Guinea male – Adult male guinea fowl
Gander - Adult male geese
Tom - Adult female turkey
Hen - Adult male fowl
Duck - Adult male duck
Guinea hen - Adult female guinea fowl
Goose - Adult female geese
Turkey hen - Adult female turkey
Chick – A young fowl
Duckling – A young duck
Guinea Chick – A young guinea fowl
Gosling – A young geese
Proult – A young turkey
Laver - A laying hen
Broiler - A meat producing bird
Cockerel - Young male fowl
Pullet - Young female fowl
Capon - A castrated
Management of Domestic Fowl
The different breeds of domestic fowls include:

(a) Rhode Island Red (R.I.R)
(b) Phymouth Rock
(c) Harco
(d) White leghorn
(e) Brown leghorn
(f) Babcocks
(g) Ancina
(h) Cornish Dark
(i) Light Sussex
(j) White Wyandotte
(k) Native fowl, etc


Fowls can be managed for any of the purposed stated below:
(i) Egg production (Layers)
(ii) Meat production (broilers)
(iii) Dual purpose: In this case, the fowls are breed for both meat and eggs.
However, the management practices for all birds whether reared for meat or eggs have some similarities.
(a) Housing: The size of the house depends on the population of the birds. The foundation should be made of solid blocks with concrete floor. The wall should be made of solid blocks with concrete floor. The wall should be short for good ventilation and adequate supply of light. Wire mesh should be used to complete the short walls upwards to the roofing level.
Care should be taken in ensuring that all holes are covered upwards to the roof. This is to prevent lizards, snakes, rats and wild birds from entering into the house as their presence will disturb the fowls.
The commonest types of roofs used in poultry buildings are:
(i) Lean-to-Roof or Shed: This is illustrated below:









On completion of the building, a mini gutter (dip) should be constructed around the entire poultry building close to the outside walls. Izal or other disinfectants should be used with water and poured into this gilder regularly. This is to prevent and vermin from entering into the poultry house.

Furthermore, a wider clip should be constructed at the entrance of the house. The attendant as well as visitors are required to dip their legs in the disinfected water in the dip before entering into the poultry house. This is to prevent disease or germs from being taken into the house.
(b) Systems of poultry management
Fowls can be managed under any of the following systems:
1. Intensive Systems: Under this system, birds are reared continuously inside a building. There are three basic types of intensive management:
(i) Deep litter system
(ii) Battery Cage System
(iii) Slate or wire poor system.

(i) Deep litter system: In this system a concrete floor is made in the poultry house and saw dust or wood shavings are used to cover the flood. Feeding and drinking troughs are arranged at appropriate pistes on the floor. In case of laying birds, laying nests should be provided on one side of the floor.

Advantages of deep litter System
1. It is economical since minimum equipment are needed.
2. Production 01 ammonia from the decomposition of the litter assist in tin- control of coccidiosis.
3. The birds have enough space for exercise.
4. There is easy control of flies since it is fairly dry.
5. The litter helps to absorb the droppings from the birds thereby reducing the offensive odor.

Disadvantages
1. Cannibalism may occur
2. Diseases and parasites are easily spread
3. High cost of constructing the house
4. Eggs are usually dirty where layers are reared under this system READ THE PROCESS OF EGG LAYING HERE

(ii) Battery System: In this intensive management system, wire, cages are used to enclose the birds in a house. each cage can accommodate two to four birds depending on the size of the cage.

Advantages
1. Provides better accommodation
2. Elimination of internal parasites because the droppings are collected below the cages
3. Sick birds are easily identified I or treatment
4. Egg production is higher
5. Records can easily he kept
6. Eggs are usually very clean or neat.

Disadvantages
1. It is expensive to build the house and buy the cages.
2. The eggs may break if slope of mesh is too step.
3. There is high labour cost.

(iii) Slate or wire floor system: This is made raised walls. The birds are kept in the slated or wired floor. The droppings which collect beneath are collected for disposal occasionally.
Advantages
1. There is no litter required
2. There is control of infection because birds d droppings.
3. Ease cleaning is needed.

Disadvantages
1. Lower egg production
2. Layers are prone to nervousness
3. There may be cannibalism.

2. Extensive or Free Range System
This is the traditional system of poultry keeping in the tropics. In the system, the fowls are allowed to move neatly in a wide area. If high land is available, this system poses no problems. Birds reared under this system find food for themselves. They are normally provided accommodation at night.

Advantages of free range system

1. The cost of feeding the birds is quite low.
2. There is no cost for housing the birds.
3. The birds can move about freely. They are therefore healthier because of their constant exercises.
4. The birds have access to natural food such as insects and vegetables

Disadvantages
1. There is danger of pests, hawks, snakes, wild animals and thieves.
2. There is risk of accident since vehicles can kill the birds.
3. There is low egg production.
4. The birds are normally small in size as they use their energy to move about in search of food and water.
5. They can easily contract disease from other birds.
6. Records are difficult to keep.

3. Semi-Intensive System
The birds under this system are kept in poultry runs made of wire netting. The birds move about within the runs during the day fend for themselves. They come to sleep in the building
at night or during adverse weather conditions such as excessive heat or rain. See the diagram below:






Run
Building
Wire fence Run


2.10.4: Semi-Intensive System of Rearing Birds.

Advantages of the system
1. There is enough space for the birds to move about.
2. The birds have access to green vegetables
3. The pasture growing in the area will do well because of the dropping from the birds
4. The birds are protected against predators such as snakes
Disadvantages
1. The cost of making wire fences is high.
2. Birds may not be totally protected from predators such as hawks
3. There is risk of parasite build up and disease out break.

(c) Management Practices: The management practices for poultry production can be treated under the follow ing headings:
(i) Egg Handling: Fertile eggs are collected from the breeding liens and sorted out. The defective ones are removed while the viable ones are taken to the incubator for hatching.
(ii) Incubation: This is a process involving the development and hatching of eggs, to give chicks. The mother hen usualh incubates her egg naturally by silting on the eggs. But the number of eggs hatched at once by a hen under this method is limited. As a result large hatching machines called incubators have been devised to hatch very large numbers of eggs.
All conditions inside the incubators are thermostatically controlled. The temperature is kept at 38V. Relative humidity • 64%. Oxygen - 21%. Carbon (IV) Oxide - 0.5%. The eggs arc then turned . regularly in the incubator so that all sides arc exposed to the incubator conditions and to prevent chicks from sticking to the shells.
Candling is carried out to identity the infertile eggs. This IN done on the 6th and 18th day of the egg's stay in the incubator. Candling ensures that all hatch able egg are hatched.
The eggs are normally ready for hatching after 21 days stav in the incubator.
When the chicks have been hatched, they are sexed (Separation into males and females) before being taken to the brooder house,
(iii) Chick Brooding: This involves taking care of the day-old chicks until they are about four weeks after which the _management practices would change.
The brooder house is normally use used to rear day old chicks

Brooding is the process of providing the natural conditions of the mother hen in artificial way.
Chick drinking and feeding troughs should be properly arrange in the brooder house. Sources of heat should be provided to up the room. Excess heat should be avoided. The chicks in the brooder house will tell the farmer whether the heat is too much or too low.
If the birds cluster together around the source of heat then the heat it too low. When most of the birds move far away from the it indicates that the temperature is too high. In either cases, the
Farmer should adjust the temperature as adequate.
Water and feed should be provided to the chicks in the brooder house adlibitum (that is, as much as they need).

At the end of four weeks, the birds should be removed from the the brooder house and reared under the necessary system earlier on in this unit. Whatever system is used to rear the birds, hygiene, adequate feed and water supply, disease and pest control should be given priority.


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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING

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