TYPES OF ANIMAL DISEASE



animal diseases

An animal is said to be diseased when there is a change from its normal way or state of its body processes. This prevents its normal body function.
As a result the animal becomes weak, silk, ill and cannot give its maximum performance when needed, as per egg production, work execution, milk production and meat/wool production.

Animal diseases are generally caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and other parasites, or they may be due to metabolic disorder. Some of the livestock diseases of importance are discussed below. YOU CAN SEE HERE FOR SOME SOUL TEACHINGS

1. VIRAL DISEASES.
I. Food and mouth Disease
This disease is common in areas with poor drainage systems and high humidity. The animals affected are goat, sheep, cattle and Pigs.
Causes or causal organism/
It is causes by virus picked up in the soil. So keeping animals or livestock requires great dexterity and care
symptoms. read how to manage farm animals here
The symptoms of the disease include formation of blisters on the mucus membrane of the mouth, on the skin, between and around the hoofs, as well as the teat.
METHOD OF TRANSMISSION
The disease could be transmitted through infected materials such as urine, milk, meat and excrement of infected animals. It can also be transmitted mechanically by humans or animals.









CONTROL METHOD.

The control methods are as follows;
(i) Infected animals should be isolated.
(ii) Contaminated materials should be buried or burnt.
(iii) Milk from infected animals should not be consumed.
(iv) Animals should be vaccinated regularly.



2. RINDERPEST

This is an important disease in areas with large numbers of animals or livestock. The disease attacks cattle, sheep and goats.
CAUSAL AGENT

It is causes by a virus.
SYMPTOMS;
The symptoms which are evident are high fever, weakness, difficult breathing, and formation of lesions on mucous membranes of the nose, anus and the eyes, pus discharge from the lesions mixed with blood. The faeces smell badly and the animal may die.
METHOD OF TRANSMISSION
Rinderpest is contagious and transmission I therefore through contact. Contamination of feeds and water by excrement from an infected animal helps to spread the disease.read transmission of diseases here








CONTROL

This can be achieved as listed below.
i. Animals should be regularly vaccinated.
ii. Only healthy animals should be introduced into the herd
iii. There should be strict prohibition of cattle movement from place to place so as to control the spread of the disease.


3. NEWCASTLE DISEASE

This a very common disease found among fowls anywhere in the world. It attacks all categories of fowl either young or old.
CAUSES OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE
Newcastle disease is caused by a virus.

SYMPTOMS OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE
The disease shows three clinical features

i. Respiratory symptoms
ii. Digestive symptom
iii. Nervous symptoms

All these symptoms may combine in a situation. Respiratory and digestive(system) symptoms are the early signs of the disease while the nervous symptom is the last stage of Newcastle disease.

1. RESPIRATORY SYMPTOM
Definite sneezing, coughing, nasal discharge dypnoea ……. Resulting in difficult breathing

2. DIGESTIVE SYMPTOM
The birds usually shows lack of appetite and diarrhea

3. NERVOUS SYMPTOM
The bird practically shows sign of paralysis, muscular tremor, somersaulting and cycling movement.

TREATMENT OR CURE
NEWCASTLE DISEASE HAS NO KNOWN CURE AS AT THE TIME OF WRITING THIS POST

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION

125. COMPOST






126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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PROPER WAYS TO USE FERTILIZERS AND MANURES


APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURES OR FERTILIZERS

Inorganic manures or fertilizers are chermical substances in of powder, granules or crystals which are added to the soil to provide nutrients that are deficient. Fertilizers are manufactured in the industry from rocks and other materials.

Types of fertilizers

There are two types of fertilizers:

(i) Straight or single or simple fertilizers: These are fertili/ers that contain one of the major plant nutrients in the form plants can use. They contain one primary element such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in their composition. These are called the key nutrients. Examples are sulphate of ammonia, urea, ammonia nitrate, sodium nitrate with nitrogen as the key nutrient. Also, singlfl super phosphate, concentrated super phosphate and calcium metaphosphate all contain phosphorus as their key element. Others are muriate of potash (potassium (1) chloride), crude potash and suiphate-of-potash-alliiavmg -potassium-asthe-ir-primary element.
(ii) Mixed or complex or compound fertilizers: These are fertilizers that contain two or more primary nutrient elements pilli filler materials. The nutrients are in ratios and the ratio refers to the proportion of the major nutrients to one another. Examples are N.P.K: 15:15:15, 20:20:20, N.P.K: Mg. 12: 12:17:2 and others







Handling of fertilizers: As a result of the inherent hazards of fertilizers such as stinging sensations, blisters, itching irritations and other skin diseases, care should be taken to avoid bodily contacts. Ilierclbre, the user should always put on gloves and protective clothings when handling fertilizers.

Storage of fertilizers: Fertilizers are stored in bags of synthetic fabrics which prevent entry of water and moist air that could lead to dissolution.

Tarpaulins should be used to give additional protection to the fertilizers stored at ports warehouses, field depots of the Ministry of Agriculture and other agencies.

Farmers should construct a simple fertilizer store among their stead. They should be stored differently according to types for easy identification and access. Platforms of wood should be made on which the bags are stacked, up to a considerable height, to avoid slippage and allow for easy stock taking. It should not rest on the wail. Air circulation should be encouraged in the store.

Advantages of fertilizers:
1. They bring about increase in crop yield.
2. They increase farm income.
3. They increase the productivity of poor soils.
4. They are easily transported to where they are needed compared to organic manures.
5. They are used on large scale.
6. The nutrients in fertilizers are readily available to crops.

Disadvantages
1. Fertilizers are easily leached in the soil.
2. Some fertilizers leave acidic residues in the soil.
3. Inorganic manures do not improve soil structure.
4. Some of the nutrients aie easily lost as gases under intense heat of the sun. Example is ammonia. 5. Fertilizers are expensive to procure.
6. They are sometimes not available at the time of need.

Methods of applying fertilizers
1. Broadcasting: This is where fertilizer is evenly spread on the farmland. It could be done before ploughing or tillage to incorporate it into the soil.
2. Side dressing or application: This is where small quantity of fertilizer is placed on one or two sides of individual crop.





3. Ring application: A shallow trench is dug round individual crop a few centimetres away from the stem. Fertilizer is then sprinkled in the trench and covered with soil.
4. Row application: This is where fertilizer is applied in row few centimetres from the crops. It is suitable when crops are planted in rows
5. Top dressing: This is where fertilizer is applied to the surface soil within the reach of the roots of crops during the growing stage.
6. Foliage application: This is where soluble fertilizers are applied as sprays on the leaves of crops.

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You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION





87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. What is soil fertility? How is it different from a fertile soil?
2. (a) List five ways through which the fertility of the soil can be maintained.
(b) Mention two advantages and t\vo disadvantages of using each way mentioned.
3. Name three types of organic manures.
4. How would you prepare suitable organic manure for use in your school farm':'
5. List three advantages and two disadvantages of each type of organic manure.
6. List two types of inorganic fertilizer you have studied. Mention three advantages and disadvantages of their uses in crop production
7. Enumerate five methods of fertilizers application.
8. Write short notes on the following:
(b) Mixed or compound fertilizers
(c) Straight or simple fertilizers
(d) Green manure
(e) Cover cropping

HOW TO APPLY ORGANIC MANURE 2


ORGANIC MANURE

Manures are plants and animal materials that are added to the soil to supply nutrieiits needed for the growth of crops. A well decomposed organic matter is called humus. Humus is a rich source of plant nutrients suitable for vegetable gardening.

Types of-Organic Manures

The major types of organic manures are green manure, form yard manure and compost manure

(i) Green manures: These are undecomposed green plants parts which are turned into the soil. Some plants are grown specifically to be worked or dug intp the ground to serve as source of plant nutrients. Examples arc mucuna, centrosema. pueraria. calopogonium and fresh green weeds. This is done mostly when they are young and succulent tor easy decomposition. It also involves the growing of leguminous plants for the purpose of soil improvement. This is the reason for increase in yield of other crops planted after a legume, such as groundnut, pigeon peas, and cowpea which add nitrogen In the soil has been harvested.






Advantages
(a) It provides organic matter to the soil to improve its physical condition.
(b) It supplies nitrogen and other plant nutrients.
(c) It protects the soil against erosion.
(d) It reduces the loss of nutrients through leaching.

Disadvantages
(a) There is competition for basic nutrients and water.
(b) They may harbour diseases and pests of crop plant.
(c) It may be expensive to grow green manure plants.

It is advised that plants to be used as green manure should
(a) Easily establish.
(b) Grow quickly.
(c) Produce abundant succulent shoots and roots in a short time.
(d) Easily cover the ground.
(e) Grow on poor soils.

(ii) Farm yard manure: This is a mixture of animal droppings, urine, food remains and beddings or litter. Manure from poultry, goats and sheep are the richest forms of farm yard manure. They are followed by those of pigs, horse and cattle.

The materials are heaped under a shed to decompose for sometime before use. They could be used direct on the farm. They should be properly handled, as too much exposure may lead to breakdown of the nutrients. The more volatile constituents such as nitrogen could be lost as ammonia gas. It is often better to mix manures from different types of animals to be used as pen manure than to apply only one type.
The quality of farm yard manure depends on:
(i) The species of animals producing the materials
(ii) Age and condition of the animal.
(iii) The type of feed given to the animal.
(iv) Nature and amount of litter. That is, whether absorbent materials are used as beddings
(v) The handling and methods of storage before use on the farm.






Farm yard manure can be applied by broadcasting before tillage especially when the soil is moist or wet. It can be spread on the bed and mixed with the soil before planting.


Advantages
1. It contains ail the required plant nutrients.
2. It is reasonably cheap as it can be obtained from the farm.
3. It has a lasting effect on the soil.
4. It binds loose sandy soil together.
5. It also loosens compact clay soils.
6. It enables the soil to absorb and retain moisture easily.


Disadvantages
1. It is very bulky.
2. It requires much labour during application.
3. It has the tendency to encourage rapid growth of weeds.

(iii) Compost manure: This is the decayed plant and animal remains in heaps or stacks or pits, used as
manure on the farm.

The materials needed for compost making include grass cuttings, hedge trimmings, weeds, vegetable wastes, leaves and otner organic wastes from the kitchen. Ash or lime or animal dungs or old compost, chemical activators such as sulphate of ammonia are also added. Young and succulent plant parts should be used instead of woody and tough parts. This is because decomposition is easier and contains much nutrients for healthy plant growth.

A suitable area of the farm, preferably near the edge, should be chosen. The area should not be water-logged. When prepared during the dry season, there should be a nearby water source.

Methods of compost making: Two methods can be used in compost making. These are the pit method and the stack or heap method. The pit method is used in areas of low rainfall or in the dry season while the stack or heap method is used in high rainfall areas or during the rainy season. Whichever method is used , the processes as well as the materials used remain the same.


Processes of compost making
1. Dig lour pits or peg out four areas.
2. Add kitchen wastes, yam peelings, orange skin and pulp, rotten fruits and anything that rots easily.
3. Then, add grass cutnnus. hedge trimmings, vegetable wastes and illled or the desired height is compress.
4. Repeat this process until the pit is filled or the desired height reached if heap method is used.

5. Cover the top with soil to prevent the entering of flies.
6. Insert a stick at one end or at the centre in case of pit method. This is called a "tester". It detects if decomposition is going on or not. The stick will be hot if there is decomposition after about 5 days or else, it will be cold.
7. Turn materials or the content of pit A or heap A into B after two weeks. Refill pit or heap A. Repeat this step until pit or heap D is reached and the desired quantity obtained.
8. Cover the final products with suitable materials until it is ready for use. This will prevent the loss of important nutrients due to strong sun or rain water.

‘Starters' are materials used to initiate decomposition process of compost materials. Examples are animal wastes, old compost or materials that rot easily.

Chemicals such as sulphate of ammonia could be used to induce decaying process in the absence of starters. Such chemicals are called 'activators


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You can read some of most interesting topics below






HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

Please feel free to share while using our comment box below.
Thanks for sharing



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