types of feeds in agriculture



Types of feeds


Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in:
1. Maintenance Ration
This is the food given to animals to keep their live - weight constant.
The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation supplement and sleeping ration.

2. Production Ration Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes.

The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry.

3. Balanced Ration This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion. The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water.







Malnutrition


Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all (read more here= the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity.)

This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied.

This condition is called marasmus.


Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbohydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.


Malnutrition,

as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as

rickets (poor formation of limbs) and ketosis (low level of blood glucose).
Malnutrition may lead to:

(i) retarded growth in the a

(ii) low production

(iii) physical deformities

(iv) ill-health

(v) death.


Feeding Equipment for Animals


1. Feeding Troughs

DIAGRAM Figure 2.9. la:



Wooden Feeding Trough

DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.1 b:



Aluminum Feeding Trough

Prepared feeds are put inside for the animal

1. Water Troughs

DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2a:

Plastic Water Trough used for Chicks

DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2b:

4 ½ litres water trough made of aluminum used by older birds,









Types of Feeds
Generally feeds may be classified into:
(a) Concentrates
(b) Succulents
(c) Roughages
(d) Supplements and additives.

1. Concentrates
These are made up of:
1. Cereals such as maize, rice, millet, sorghum, etc. These are also referred to as basal feeds or energy concentrates.
2. Leguminous seeds such as groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others such as palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake. These are plant protein concentrate 3. Fish meal and blood meal. These are animal protein concentrates.

Concentrates are easily digested by farm animals.

Succulent Feeds
These consist of:
1. Roots and tubers such as yam cassava, coco-yam, etc
2. Vegetables such as water leaf and shoko
3. forages such as pasture grasses
4. silage made from green fresh grass
5. Cane molasses mainly from sugar cane

Succulent feeds are very high in water and are easily digested by lin in animals. Most green crops can be used as succulent feeds when they are young.

3. Roughages
These consist of dry grasses which usually add bulk to animal feeds. Examples are Hay, Straw.
Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animals future use.


4. Supplements and Additives
Feed supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which might be lacking in the main feed. The following could serve as feed supplements:

1. Cotton seed cake
2. Soya bean meal
3. Groundnut cake
4. Fish meal
5. Bone meal
6. Egg shell meal
7. Oyster shell meal
8. Salt-licks
9. Limestone
10. Vitamins


The feed additives include:
1. Antibiotics
2. Amino acids
3. Hormones and so on.
These help to stabilize the feeds as well as improve on the quality and storability of the feeds.

9.2 Feed Nutrients
Many elements in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. These elements include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, Florine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and caromium.


follow this link for details on types of feeds

Based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be classified into six groups, viz:
1. Carbohydrate
Supplying energy, e.g cereals, roots and tubers, etc
2. Proteins
Needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, etc
3. Fats
Supplying energy and keeping the body temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, etc.
4. Minerals
They helo to carry out vital body function. Examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so on.

5. Vitamins
They help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins A, B,C,D, E and K
6. Water
This is a constituent of body fluid. It helps to regular body temperature, lubricate joints, transport body materials and breakdown (digestions) of food.

9.3 Types of Ration
Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in:
1. Maintenance Ration
This is the food given to animals to keep their live - weight constant. The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation treatment and sleeping ration.
2. Balanced Ration
Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes. The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry.
3. Balanced Ration
This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion. The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water.

Malnutrition: Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity. This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied. This condition is called marasmus.
Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbohydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.


Malnutrition, as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as rickets (poor formation of limbs) and ketosis (low level of blood glucose). Malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded growth in the a
(ii) low production
(iii) physical deformities
(iv) ill-health
(v) death.
ROUGHAGES




1. List three main types of feeds ad give two examples of each.



2. Classify animal feeds based on the nutrients they supply



3. Explain the following terms:

i. Maintenance ration

ii. Production ration


4. Give four effects of malnutrition in farm animals. 5. List ten feed supplements and additives that a farmer, could add to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients that may be lacking.

Types of Feeds Generally feeds may be classified into: (a) Concentrates (b) Succulents (c) Roughages (d) Supplements and additives. 1. Concentrates These are made up of: 1. Cereals such as maize, rice, millet, sorghum, etc. These are also referred to as basal feeds or energy concentrates. 2. Leguminous seeds such as groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others such as palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake. These are plant protein concentrates. 3. Fish meal and blood meal. These are animal protein concentrates. Concentrates are easily digested by farm animals. Succulent Feeds These consist of: 1. Roots and tubers such as yam cassava, cocoyam,
2. Vegetables such as water leaf and shoko 3. forages such as pasture grasses 4. silage made from green fresh grass 5. Cane molasses mainly from sugar cane Succulent feeds'are very high in water and are easily digested by lin in animals. Most green crops can be used as succulent feeds when they are young. 3. Roughages These consist of dry grasses which usually add bulk to animal feeds. Examples are Hay, Straw. Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animals future use. 4. Supplements and Additives Feed supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which might be lacking in the main feed. The follow ing could serve as feed supplements:


1. Cotton seed cake 2. Soya bean meal 3. Groundnut cake 4. Fish meal 5. Bone meal 6. Egg shell meal 7. Oyster shell meal 8. Saltlicks 9. Limestone 10. Vitamins



The feed additives include:
1. Antibiotics 2. Amino acids 3. Hormones and so on.

These help to stabilize the feeds as well as improve on the quality and storability of the feeds. 9.2 Feed Nutrients Many elements in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. These elements include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, flourine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and caromium. Based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be classified into six groups, viz: 1. Carbonhydrates Supplying energy, e.g cereals, roots and tubers,

2. Proteins Needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, etc 3. Fats Supplying energy and keeping the body temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, etc. 4. Minerals They help to carry out vital body function. Examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so on. 5. Vitamins They help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins A, B,C,D, E and K 6.


Water This is a constituent of body fluid. It helps to regular body temperature, lubricate joints, transport body materials and breakdown (digestions) of food. 9.3 Types of Ration Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in: 1. Maintenance Ration This is the food given to animals to keep their live - weight constant. The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation imnement and sleeping ration.

2. Balanced Ration Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes. The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry

3. Balanced Ration

This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion. The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water. Malnutrition: Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity. This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied. This condition is called marasmus.


Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbonhydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins. Malnutrition, as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as rickets (poor formation of limbs) and ketosis (low level of blood glucose).



Malnutrition may lead to:
(i) retarded growth in the a
(ii) low production
(iii) physical deformities
(iv) ill-health (v) death.

9.4 Feeding Equipment for Animals 1. Feeding Troughs DIAGRAM Figure 2.9. la: Wooden Feeding Trou DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.1 b: Aluminium Feeding Trough Prepared feeds are put inside for the animal 2. Water Troughs DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2a: Plastic Water Trough used for Chicks DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2b: 4 ½ litres water trough made of aluminium used by older birds, STUDY QUESTIONS 1. List three main types of feeds ad give two examples of each. 2. Classify animal feeds based on the nutrients they supply 3. Explain the following terms: i. Maintenance ration ii. Production ration 4. Give four effects of malnutrition in farm animals. 5. List ten feed supplements and additives that a farmer, could add to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients that ma\ be lacking.

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You can read some of most interesting topics below







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS

41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


TYPES OF CROPPING SYSTEMS



CROPPING SYSTEMS

1. Identify and explain the different cropping systems.
2. Give the advantages and disadvantages of each cropping system
The way a farmland is cropped varies from one farmer to the other system adopted may depend on the available farmland, the type of agriculture (whether subsistence or commercial), the need of the farmer and so on. It is worthy of note that farming practice is not static as such it is evolving. So in this article we shall consider the most widely practiced farming system the world over
The following are the cropping systems commonly practiced by farmers.
1 Mono-cropping

This is the growing of only one type of crop (such as maize) on a piece of land. It could be for a season or for several years as in plantation farming. The system is also termed sole cropping. Most often this type of farming practice involves mechanization.


Advantages

1. It makes possible the use of machines in farm operation.

2. It leads higher productivity per hectare,

3. It also leads to specialization among farmers.

4. The control of weeds is easy. This is because herbicides can be used

5. It employs more labor thereby leading to greater harvest

Disadvantages

1. It is risky because crop failure arising from pest, diseases or weather conditions will result in total loss of income to the farmer for that year.

2. The system encourages the rapid spread of pests and diseases on the farm.

3. Labour may not be efficiently utilized throughout the year.

4. It does not afford the farmer a variety of crops.

5. Most often it requires high capital investment

6. It can’t be practiced within an area where there is community farming


2. Mixed cropping

This is also called multiple cropping because it involves the planting of more than one type of crop on the same farmland in one planting season. It is very common under subsistence agriculture and in are where farmlands are limited. Under mixed cropping, the farmer could practice any of the following:







(a) Inter-planting: This is the growing of two crops together on the same land. The crop which was planted first is also harvest first while the one planted last remains on the plot to harvested later. An example is the growing of maize, cassava, groundnut, melon, yam and okra together on the same piece of land in one planting season. Maize, which is usually planted first, is also harvest first. Maize is therefore said to be inter-planted with yam.

(b) Inter-cropping: This is when two crops are grown together with the crop planted last being harvested first. Usually the c planted last has shorter lifespan than the one planted first, example is the planting of melon after yam has been plant The melon will be harvested first while the yam continues on plot. Yam is therefore said to be intercropped with melon.



Advantages

1. It affords the farmer a variety of crops.

2. It serves as insurance against the failure of one type of crops.

3. It minimizes the spread of diseases and pests on the farm.

4. It enables the crops to make efficient use of soil nutrients.

5. The ensures efficient utilization of labour throughout the year.



Disadvantages

1. It does not encourage the use of machines on the farm.

2. It may lead to rapid exhaustion of soil nutrients if legumes not included.

3. It is labour intensive.

4. Pests and disease agents may persist on the farmland. This is because there are always food and alternative hosts for them.

3. Continuous cropping

This is the practice of putting a farmland under cultivation continuously that is from year to year. It may take any of form: this type of farming practice usually lead to soil loss of nutrients, becoming acidic

(a) Annual cropping: Planting annual crops which are replaced after harvesting. This means the land is cleared, tilled and cropped every season. This is common where land is scarce. this type of farming is mostly practiced in the southern parts of Nigeria

(b) Permanent cropping: This involves planting and maintaining the crops, usually permanent crops continuously on the farm land, it usually in plantations.



Advantages

1 It reduces the cost of land preparation after the initial clearing and tilling.

2 It enables the farmer to construct permanent structures such as storage structures on the farm.

3 It can be practiced where land is scarce.



Disadvantages

1. The fertility of the soil is easily exhausted.

2. It leads to destruction of soil structure.

3. It encourages soil erosion.

4. Yields me normally reduced with increasing years of cropping.

5. It encourages build-up of crop pests and disease agents.

6. It required high amount of money to keep the land fertile and productive.



4. Crop Rotation

This involves the planting of different types of crop in different plots on a farmland during one season; and at the beginning of the next season, the crops are changed from their respective plots, while following a definite order or sequence. The system combines mixed cropping with continuous cropping and is mainly practiced by institutions of learning.

For crop rotation to be successful, certain principles must be followed



Principles of Crop Rotation

(a) The same type of crop should not be allowed to follow each other on the same plot. For example, maize should not follow maize.

(b) Crops that belong to the same group should not also follow each other on the same plot, e.g. cassava should not follow yam, or to follow maize.

(c) Crops that have deep roots like yam and cassava, should be followed with those that have shallow roots such as maize and groundnut.

(d) Crops that consume a lot of nitrogen such as the-cereal group should be followed by those that add nitrogen to the soil such as maize and the legume group,

(e) Crops likely to be affected by the same disease or pest should not follow each other on the same plot. The number of crops involved in the rotation will determine the type of rotation. Therefore, there could be a two-year, three-year, or tour-year crop rotation.



How to Design a Four-Year Crop Rotation

(a) Divide the farmland into four plots.

(b) Choose the crops to cultivate.

(c) Plant one crop on each plot, making sure the principles guiding the adoption of the system are adhered to.



(4) At the end of one season, shift the crop from plot B to A, C to B, D to C and A to D

(5) Follow this sequence until the fourth year is reached.










Year

Plot A

Plot B

Plot C

Plot D

1

Maize

Cassava

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

2

Cassava

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

Maize

3

Groundnut

Yam and Melon

Maize

Cassava

4

Yam and Melon

Maize

Cassava

Groundnut



Figure 3.2.1: A Four-Year Crop Rotation,

Advantages

1. It helps to maintain soil fertility.

2. It makes efficient use of soil nutrients.

3. The farmer has access to a variety of crops.

4. It minimize the spread of diseases and pests and helps to check weeds

5. It reduces soil erosion.

6. It leads to efficient utilization of labour.

7. It is a good practice where land is scarce.



Disadvantages

1. It is labour intensive.

2. Crop yields may decrease with years except additional manures or fertilizers are applied.

3. It leads to destruction of soil structure which may facilitate soil erosion.



I want to re-iterate here that the various cropping systems listed in this article are not the final list of the various farming practices, so as read this article and there remembered any not listed here please feel free to leave your comment

don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.









HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS

41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




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