BREEDS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. SUCH AS GOATS, SHEEP, PIG, RABBITS AND CATTLES


BREEDS OF GOAT AND PIG


1. GOAT:

GOAT IS ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR FARM ANIMALS in the world. The products from goat are cherished by Muslims and Christians alike. Goats do well even in places where it is unlikely for other farm animals to survive.



They lived on variety of feeds and eat almost anything that is not soiled. Goats are therefore found in all parts of Nigeria for example.



IMPORTANCE OF GOAT KEEPING

I. For the production of meat II. For the production of milk III. For the production of mohair IV. For the production of hides The adult male Goat is called Billy. The adult female is called a Doe The young of either sex is called kid, while a female that is above one year but below two years is called a Goathing.

BREEDS OF GOATS


1. Dwarf Goat: this type of Goat is native to most southern parts of Nigeria. It is short in stature and muscularly built. They vary from black, reddish, brown or multiple colours. It is a good source of meat.

2. SOKOTO RED OF MARADI: this type of Goat very common in Sokoto State of Nigeria hence the name Sokoto Maradi.

3. Sahel or Desert Goat: this type of Goat is found in the extreme North of Nigeria. The Goat has long legs, medium or large body size. The desert Goat is a good meat and skin producer.

4. KANO BROWN: it is a medium size Goat and is common in Kano area of Nigeria. The Goat has straight ears and brown hairs.








5. BORNO RED: this type of Goat is majorly found in Borno state in Nigeria. It has long tin legs, pointed horns and large ears.

6. SAAREN: this is a European breed of Goat. It has no horn, and is majorly white and pale cream colour and with black spot on the ear.

7. ANGLO-NUBIAN: this type of Goat originated from India and Egypt. It has no horn. The animal is very good in the production of meat and milk.


8. ANGORA: this type of Goat originated from central Asia, and is kept majorly for the production of Mohair.

9. TOGGEN-BURG: this is a Swiss breed of Goat and has chocolate colour with white or cream stripes.


PIG PIG:
pig is one of the domesticated animals found in Nigeria and most other West African sub region. Pigs are reared for the production of meat called pork and fats called lard. The pig produces large liters twice a year. One litter or birth gives between six and sixteen piglets. Pig virtually eats anything edible when given. The rearing of pigs in Nigeria and the consumption is not very popular for religious reasons mostly in the northern part of Nigeria. The pig is a major carrier of tapeworm that infects humans.
The adult male pig is called Boar. The adult female is called Sow. The young of either sex is called Piglet


1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS






76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE



BREEDS OF PIGS The breeds of pigs reared in Nigeria include those that are native to Nigeria and those that are brought from Europe and America. And they are as follows:


1. WEST AFRICAN DWARF PIG:
this breed of pig is kept by the local farmers in villages and towns in most southern part of Nigeria. It is small in size and usually black or brown in colour. It live in dirty environment and eats anything that comes its way. This breed of pig is native to West Africa.


2. LARGE WHITE:
This is a popular meat producing pig in Nigeria. It is white in colour and has average size. It is resistant to tryponosomiasis disease hence found in Southern Nigeria. The pig is native to America.



3. LANDRACE: this pig is larger than all other breeds. It has white skin and ears. The pig has large ears pointing forward. It originated from Norway. 4. DUROC: this type has large body. Golden yellow or cherry red in colour. It has droopy ears. It has its origin from U.S.A. 5. LARGE BLACK: the animal is black in colour with droopy ears. Very good meat producer and originated from America. 6. CHESTER WHITE: this pig has white colour. The ears are droopy and are larger than Duroc. Originated from Pennsylvania U.S.A. 7. TAMWORTH: the animal has red colour, long head, small legs and slim body. It is native of IRELAND.



SHEEP, GOATS AND RABBIT









Sheep.



(b) Breeds of Sheep

(a) The West African Dwarf sheep

(b) The West African long legged sheep e.g. the African Ouda

(c) The Macuna Wool Sheep. This is found mainly in the Sudan. Their skins are valuable and are exported.






(c) Management Practices in Sheep:

(i) Housing: Mature sheep do not require expensive housing. They do well where they can have dry bed in the open. Housing is however important during the wet season for all grades of sheep. The buildings are generally simple having little or no equipment. Slated platforms are provided in pens on which the animals lie. The slate are therefore self-cleaning. The droppings are removed from time to time and can be used for compost making.

(ii) Feeding: Sheep is a ruminant. It feeds on a variety of grasses and shrubs. Sheep are more able, than any other farm animal, to make use of whole maize grains without previous

Therefore, whole maize grains can be fed to sheep to supplement grass feed. This is very important in the dry season. Sheep on the dry feeds requires a great deal of water. In addition, adequate minerals and antibiotics should be provided.

(i) Breeding: Both male and female sheep attain sexual maturity in six months, but are best used for service or best served when 9 – 12months old. Heat period lasts 1-2 days in sheep and is repeated in about 21days. Gestation period is about 150 days. A female sheep will come on heat 7 months after delivery. The male sheep are castrated between 1-4 weeks after birth and are weaned in 4 to 6 months.

In temperature areas, there are seasons for breeding. It is known that feeding sheep well during the breeding season results in the production of twin lambs. This practice of feeding sheep well during the breeding season is known as "flushing". In general, good feeding during pregnancy results in strong and healthy lambs.



1.5 Goat. Goats are very common farm animals all over Nigeria.

(a) Importance of Goat Keeping

1. Goat meat is cherished by many people and it is a rich source of protein

2. Goat milk is easily digestible and has many advantages over cow milk

3. Goat hair) is used in making carpets and bags.

4. Goat provide income to the keeper.

5. Goat provides hides and skin used in making leather works.

6. Goat are used for many festivals and ceremonies.

7. The droppings provide manure to soils for growing crops.

(b) Breed of Goat: The following are the common breeds of goat in Nigeria:

(a) Dwarf goat

(b) Sokoto Red or Maradi

(c) Sahel or Desert goat

(d) Kano Brown

(e) Borno Red











Imported or exotic breeds include:


(a) Saanen

(b) Anglo-Nubian

(c) Toggen-burg

(d) Angora



(c) Some terms associated with goat keeping:

1. Doe: adult female goat sometimes called nanny goat

2. Billy: adult male goat

3. Kid: a young goat of either sex usually under one year old.

4. Goat meat: meat from goat

5. Castrate: castrated male goat

6. Kidding: the act of giving birth in goats,



(d) Goat breeding: Goats mature at a very early age. It is advisable that both the male and .female should reach the age of nine months and twelve to eighteen mouths respectively before being bred.



Oestros Cycle: 21-28 days. Heat period: 24-48 hours.



Since ovulation (shedding of the ova) occurs towards the end i heat, the best time to mate the doe is about 12 hours before the end of heat. The signs of heat includes:



1. bleating (irritating noise making)

2. riding other goats

3. tail shaking

4. swollen and reddened vulva

5. tendency to urinate frequently



Gestation period: 5 months or 150 days.



Goat kid three times in two years. One to three kids are normally given birth to at one kidding or parturition.



Young kids should be allowed to take their mothers colostrum.



Weaning: 4-6 months of age.



Castration: males not required for breeding should be castrated at one to four weeks of age. The remaining ones can then be managed under any of the following management systems



(c) Management Systems for Goats

Goat may be managed under:

1. Extensive system

2. Intensive system.

3. Semi-intensive system



1. Extensive System: Under this system, the goats are given all freedom to wander about in search of feed tor themselves. They h id on grasses and kitchen wastes. No deliberate attempt is made to house the goats although they are sometimes provided shelter at nights.

Goats reared under this system are very destructive as they feed on almost all economic plants and even human food.

2. Intensive system: In this system the goats are continuously housed. Feed and water are provided for them in the pens. The houses provide protection against environmental hazards and predators. The destructive aspect of goats is also controlled.

The pens, water troughs and feeding devices are cleaned regularly to ensure good hygiene. Deworming and spraying against parasites are common practices with goats reared under the intensive systems of management, i mats do well under this system of rearing.

3. Semi- intensive system: This involves rearing of goats in pastures. The goats are rotated from pasture. This is called controlled grazing. Some pens are provided in the pasture land. It combines the advantages of intensive system management.

Tethering is generally part of the semi-intensive method of goat keeping since fences are expensive. Tethering involves tying the utility a rope to a stake or tree. They feed from that stand. The areas they can breed depends on the length of the rope. It is better lo tether goats in small huts with roofs or under tree shades where forage crops are brought to them in order to avoid harsh environmental conditions. This system of management is cheap.

Rabbits

Rabbits can be raised at a shortest possible time with least feed. They may be bred for yarn, fur, pels, as a source of letting and for laboratory experiments in Colleges and Universities. They are also a source of income to the farmers. The meat of rabbit is high in protein and low in fat and caloric content. Its manure is high in nitrogen and phosphoric




(a) Breeds of Rabbits

These are the important breeds of domestic rabbits: the New Zealand white. Flemish Giant, the New Zealand Red and Checkered Giant. Some rabbit’s breeders recommend the New Zealand for Nigeria.

(b) Management practices in Rabbits

(i) Housing: Rabbits are kept in cages called hutches. It is most essential that the hutches are protected from rain and sunlight. Each adult rabbit should have its own hutch, which should be 60cm high 75cm deep and 1 ½ - 2m long. The cage should dry and self-cleaning. The bottom of the cage should be made of wire mesh so that the faeces and urine can drop to the ground. Also, the cages should stand on legs and the total height of each should be waist high. It is difficult to keep cages with solid bottom dry. Wet cages encourage breeding of flies, and coccidiosis. A three unit cage is always recommended, that is, that can hold three adult rabbits; two doe (female rabbit) and a buck (male rabbit). The walls of the hutch can be made of split bamboo while the roof is made in such a way mil rain from tickling through. All cages must stand in filled with water to keep off ants.

Breeding cages may, be provided with nest boxes. These be built into the cages or they may be removable boxes that can be set in cages several days before the does are ready to kindle (give birth to young ones). A nest box should be 55cm. A few small holes should be drilled at the bottom of the box drainage.

Water must be provided in each cage always and the waterer cleaned off every morning before adding new one. The waterer must not be leaking.



(ii)Rabbits are fed twice a day. That is in the morning - evening. Grains are fed in the morning while green led in the evening. Nursing does require more feeds than dry does or bucks. The best feed is poultry mash, either grower layers mash. Since poultry mash is dusty, it should prevent irritation of the nose and lungs. Alternatively, a mixture of guinea corn and groundnut cake can be alter grinding. The best green feeds are Amaranthus, Aspilia Africana, Talinum triangular and grasses.

(ii) Breeding: Most large breeds of rabbit such as New Zealand white sexually mature in 8-9 months and can be bred then. The smaller breeds like the polish can be used for breeding when four months old. Bucks (male) and does (female) mature about same age. One buck can service about ten does if the breeding spread out. However no buck should be used more times a week for service and when the doe shows signs of heat, it should be taken to the buck’s cage for mating. This is because if the duck is brought to doe’s cage, the doe may attack it. If the doe is just placed the hutch with the buck, it will often squat in the corner of hutch and will not accept service. Therefore, holding the will quicken mating. After mating, the doe should be sent to her hutch. The service date should be recorded and approximate kindling date noted. Gestation period, that is after two weeks, the doe should be examined for pregnancy pressing gently with the hand on her belly. If she is pregnant one will feel some small marble shaped lumps in the womb uterus. If the doe is not pregnant, it should be sent back to when it comes on heat again.














(iii) Kindling:

Kindling is the act of giving birth to the young. A nest should be placed in the hutch about 24 days after it has been mated. If it kindles on wire floor the litter (a grown young ones born at the same time) may perish. No strong bedding is to be placed in the cage. The cage must be the doe will pull out enough hair from her belly to cover litter. As each infant is delivered, the doe licks it. After kindling, the litter should be inspected and dead or deformed removed. The cans on which the hutch is standing must be with water to prevent ants from entering to kill the young of Rabbits are nervous animals and are more nervous during kindling periods. Therefore, keep the doe as quiet as possible during this period, keep off all natural enemies like do cats. Keep people and children away from her hutch. Avoid the doe as much as possible on the day before and after kindling because excitement also causes abortion.

Some does kill their young ones. This may be a sign under feeding. Some kill for no purpose. Such doe should be called.



Hygiene:

With good housing, it is not difficult to maintain hygiene in rabbit’s house. It is important to clean hutches and waterers regularly and remove droppings from the floor to build up of disease organisms. Major diseases of rabbits are pneumonia and diarrhea. These should be controlled when they occur by consulting the nearest veterinary doctor.

Rabbits

Rabbits can be raised at a shortest possible time with least feed. They may be bred for yarn, fur, pels, as a source of letting and for laboratory experiments in Colleges and Universities. They are also a source of income to the farmers. The meat of rabbit is high in protein and low in fat and caloric content. Its manure is high in nitrogen and phosphoric



(a) Breeds of Rabbits

These are the important breeds of domestic rabbits: the New Zealand white. Flemish Giant, the New Zealand Red and Checkered Giant. Some rabbit’s breeders recommend the New Zealand for Nigeria.

(b) Management practices in Rabbits

(i) Housing: Rabbits are kept in cages called hutches. It is most essential that the hutches are protected from rain and sunlight. Each adult rabbit should have its own hutch, which should be 60cm high 75cm deep and 1 ½ - 2m long. The cage should dry and self-cleaning. The bottom of the cage should be made of wire mesh so that the faeces and urine can drop to the ground. Also, the cages should stand on legs and the total height of each should be waist high. It is difficult to keep cages with solid bottom dry. Wet cages encourage breeding of flies, and coccidiosis. A three unit cage is always recommended, that is, that can hold three adult rabbits; two doe (female rabbit) and a buck (male rabbit). The walls of the hutch can be made of split bamboo while the roof is made in such a way mil rain from tickling through. All cages must stand in filled with water to keep off ants.

Breeding cages may, be provided with nest boxes. These be built into the cages or they may be removable boxes that can be set in cages several days before the does are ready to kindle (give birth to young ones). A nest box should be 55cm. A few small holes should be drilled at the bottom of the box drainage.

Water must be provided in each cage always and the waterer cleaned off every morning before adding new one. The waterer must not be leaking.



(ii)Rabbits are fed twice a day. That is in the morning - evening. Grains are fed in the morning while green led in the evening. Nursing does require more feeds than dry does or bucks. The best feed is poultry mash, either grower layers mash. Since poultry mash is dusty, it should prevent irritation of the nose and lungs. Alternatively, a mixture of guinea corn and groundnut cake can be alter grinding. The best green feeds are Amaranthus, Aspilia Africana, Talinum triangular and grasses.

(ii) Breeding: Most large breeds of rabbit such as New Zealand white sexually mature in 8-9 months and can be bred then. The smaller breeds like the polish can be used for breeding when four months old. Bucks (male) and does (female) mature about same age. One buck can service about ten does if the breeding spread out. However no buck should be used more times a week for service and when the doe shows signs of heat, it should be taken to the buck’s cage for mating. This is because if the duck is brought to doe’s cage, the doe may attack it. If the doe is just placed the hutch with the buck, it will often squat in the corner of hutch and will not accept service. Therefore, holding the will quicken mating. After mating, the doe should be sent to her hutch. The service date should be recorded and approximate kindling date noted. Gestation period, that is after two weeks, the doe should be examined for pregnancy pressing gently with the hand on her belly. If she is pregnant one will feel some small marble shaped lumps in the womb uterus. If the doe is not pregnant, it should be sent back to when it comes on heat again.


(iii) Kindling:



Kindling is the act of giving birth to the young. A nest should be placed in the hutch about 24 days after it has been mated. If it kindles on wire floor the litter (a grown young ones born at the same time) may perish. No strong bedding is to be placed in the cage. The cage must be the doe will pull out enough hair from her belly to cover litter. As each infant is delivered, the doe licks it. After kindling, the litter should be inspected and dead or deformed removed. The cans on which the hutch is standing must be with water to prevent ants from entering to kill the young of Rabbits are nervous animals and are more nervous during kindling periods. Therefore, keep the doe as quiet as possible during this period, keep off all natural enemies like do cats. Keep people and children away from her hutch. Avoid the doe as much as possible on the day before and after kindling because excitement also causes abortion.

Some does kill their young ones. This may be a sign under feeding. Some kill for no purpose. Such doe should be called.









Hygiene:

With good housing, it is not difficult to maintain hygiene in rabbit’s house. It is important to clean hutches and waterers regularly and remove droppings from the floor to build up of disease organisms. Major diseases of rabbits are pneumonia and diarrhea. These should be controlled when they occur by consulting the nearest veterinary doctor.


don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

TYPES OF CATTLE REARING AND CATTLE MANAGEMENT




CATTLE REARING

Cattle rearing in one of the most important aspect of animal husbandry. The production of beef meat, hides and skin through cattle rearing dates far back as 6,000 BC. The art of rearing of cattle is as old as man himself. Cut across all religion, cultural practices and Tribal sentiment, cattle rearing is generally accepted. So in this article, we shall be looking at the various types of cattle, geographical distribution, meat production and cattle management in general. So let’s consider the following

HERE IS A POST ON THE BOTANICAL NAMES OF WEEDS

(a) Importance of Cattle

1. Beef, which is a rich source of protein, is obtained from cattle,







2. Milk is also a major product from dairy cows.

3. Hides are used for various industrial purposes, particularly leather works

4. It horns and hooves are used for making various household wares, e.g. knives, ash trays, etc.

5. Cattle production provides employment to many people directly or indirectly.

6. Provides income to the farmer.

7. The dungs serve as a good source of farm yard manure to crop growers.

8. The bones supply minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium when included in animal feeds.



(b) Some Terms Associated with Cattle Production

1. Bull: an adult male cattle- a full grown made cattle is called the Bull. Usually used for sporting activities

2. Cow: adult female cattle. Majorly kept for the purpose of reproduction

3. Bullock or steet or Slag: a castrated male cattle. It is widely believed that castrated bulls are usually very strong as such this breed of cattle are used majorly for work such as tillage practices

4. Heifer: a young female cattle which has not had a calf, usually under I2 months old.

5. Yearling: a young cattle usually between 12 to 24 months.

6. Veal: the beef of young cattle.

7. Vealers: calves reared for meat production. They are usually slaughtered when 3 months old.

8. Colostrum: a kind of milk produced by a cow three to four days alter delivery.

9. Calving: the act of deliver in cows.

10. Servicing: mating of a cow by a bull. Most preferred practice is that there are specially reared for the sole purpose of mating to produce stronger breed

11. Castration: removal of the male testes to enhance the growth o the animal

12. Heat period: the period when the cow is ready to receive the bull for servicing. It occurs mid-way within the oestrus cycle.

13. Oestrus cycle: the time interval between one heat period and another.

14. Gestation Period: This is the period of pregnancy. In cows it last for 281-283 days i.e. about 9 months.

15. Udder: The breast of cows.



(c) Types of Cattle

There are different types of cattle depending on the purpose for which they are kept. In this article I am going to use cattle names majorly reared in Nigeria, so if you have other breeds of cattle that are not listed here, feel free to complete the list by leaving us a reply and comment below.

These include:

1. Beef type cattle: Those kept for beef or meat production purposes, e.g. Ndama. Muturu. Keteku. Etc.

2. Dairy cattle: Those kept for milk production purposes, e.g. white Fulani, Buraji etc.

3. Workcatte: These are cattle kept for work purposes. They are used to do odd jobs in farms like

Pulling of ploughs, e.g. Sokoto gudali. Kanrej etc. they are kept for tillage works in agricultural science

4. Dual purpose cattle: These are kept for more than one purpose. They could be kept for milk production and at the same time for beef production, e.g. Sokoto gudali.








(c) Breeds of cattle

Cattle are mostly reared in the Northern Nigeria because of the presence of tse-tse fly in the south of the country. This type of fly transmits a disease causing organism called TRYPANOSOM that causes sleeping sickness in cattle

The following are common breeds of cattle in Nigeria



(i) Hump-less Cattle: Krui, Ndama, Muturu

(ii) Humped or Zebu Cattle: Red bororo. Sokoto gudali, Shuwa Cattle, white Fulani



(b) Foreign or exotic breeds: These can be grouped into two:

(i) Dairy breeds: e.g. Holstein Friesian. Brown Swiss. Red Den and New Jersey.

(ii) Beef breeds: e.g. Hereford. Aberdeen Angus. Red Devon etc.



(d) Management Systems in Cattle

Cattle can be managed under any of the following systems:



(i) Extensive System: This is the traditional method of cattle production. It is commonly practiced in tropical countries of the world. In this system, cattle are moved from one grazing land to the other depending on the availability of grass.



Most cattle in Nigeria are reared under this system. When grasses become scarce in the dry season, the animals are moved to where there is denser vegetation. The animals are In graze under the control of a herdsman.


Advantages of the system

1. The system is cheap since no money is spent on feeding the animals

2. Some parasites such as ticks and worms can be checked since the animals do not remain in one place for a long time.


Disadvantages of the system

1. Much land is required to practice the system.

2. The animals do not perform maximally in terms of milk or beef production especially when dry season comes.

3. No adequate records can be kept about the animals.

4. Animals are exposed to various dangers such as weather hazards

5. Diseases cannot be easily controlled.



(ii) Intensive System: Under the intensive system of management the cattle are housed in pens or kraals. Feed and water are supplied them in the pens.

Advantages

1. It does not waste land

2. Records are easily kept

3. Weather hazards are minimized

4. Diseases and pests are easily controlled

5. The performance of the animals is very good in terms of meat and milk production

Disadvantages

1. It is very expensive due to the cost of erecting the buildings

2. Contagious disease is often a problem



iii. Semi-Intensive System: This is where cattle are kept with some restriction and are usually provided accommodation at nights or during bad weather. It is a bridge between the extensive a intensive systems of management.

(f) Management Practices cattle rearing

The life of cattle can he divided into three stages like poultry, namely:

1. Calf hood

2. Growers

3. Adulthood.



(a) Rearing of calves: Calves could be regarded as animals from birth till they attain the age of six months after which they become growers.








(i) Calf Buildings or Pens: Calves are best reared indoors in the tropics as calves are likely to be easily infected with internal parasites round in pastures. Besides, calves do better with young and palatable grasses. It is difficult to keep grassing fields at this conditions. Such should be cut from the pastures and fed to calves in Pens. The roof of a calf pen is simple. It may be of zinc or asbestos roof over concrete floor. This should be well drained. Side walls are not necessary. The sides of the pens are screened to keep off flies.

(ii) Management of Calves: Immediately after calving a good cow takes care of the calf and endeavours to protect and secure it, then begins immediately begins to remove the mucus covering the body of the calf by licking it. The farmer has to remove the calf as the cow can be careless. The umbilical cord has to he cut and treated with iodine to check infection. The calf may suckle the dam. If the dam is milked for human use. he calf may be bucket-fed. Whichever is the method, the milk produced by the dam for the first three to four days called colostrum must be fed to the calf. In general, a calf is fed milk ration up to 8% of its body weight a day or 4 to 6 litres, in three feeds. The milk to be fed must be warmed to 29°C, the body temperature of a calf, him cold milk may result in calf diarrhea called Accour. The bucket used in feeding must be scrubbed with soap after each feeding.

It should be remembered that a calf does not function well until it is few weeks old. At birth the capacity of is 70% of the four stomach chambers, whereas in the cow it is on 7%. Therefore, a calf can only take solid when it is up to three weeks old. A suitable ration at this stage is

Palm kernel meal - 50 parts

Guinea corn dusa - 25 parts

Groundnut cake - 25 parts

Feed 1 to 1.5kg of this ration in a day. The milk feed is then reduced: young succulent grasses-are ted in addition. The calf is finally weaned from milk when 12 to 14 weeks old.

At every stage, water must be made available to calves every day.



(ii) Dehorning: This is the process of preventing the appearance of the horns. Dehorning is essential with dairy animals. Bull calves proposed for work should not be dehorned. This is to provide points of attachment for farm implements.



Dehorning should be performed when a calf is a week old.

This is done by cauterizing the horn bud by either rubbing with a caustic stick till near bleeding or by the use of cylindrical hot iron pressed for a second on the rim of horn bud.

De-horning helps to reduce space occupied by animals and prevent injuries arising from fighting.

(iii) Castration: This is preventing the development, or the entire ol the testicles. This is best done when a bull-calf is ten days old, a very sharp knife, crushers or rubber ring is used for lilts pin pose. The burdizzo bloodless castractor can be used safely at any age. Castration helps to prevent indiscriminate breeding and also makes animals fatten up faster.

(v) Earmarking: For the purpose of distinguishing the animals, the calves are marked on the ear as early as possible with a pliers or punching tool.

(vi) Nose Puncturing: Bull calves proposed for work should have their noses punctured. Nose rings should be inserted. These rings help to control the animals later.











(b) Rearing of Growers (Heifers): The management of heifers is divided into two stages. The first stage is from six months old till the time of first service which is approximately 27 months. The other stage is from the time of the first service till calving at approximately three years and one month. It is cheaper to rear heifers out doors under rotational grazing where grasses are adequate. Grazing is sufficient during the wet season. During the dry season, grazing should be supplemented with good silage, hay or potato vines. In addition. 1 to 1.5kg of concentrate should be given. The concentrate could be made up as follows:



1 ½ parts cotton seed.

1 part guinea corn seed.

½ part dusa (guinea chaff).

3% mineral mixture.

OR

3 parts guinea corn seeds.

1½ parts groundnut cake.

3% mineral mixture.

The mineral mixture could be made out with

40 parts of common salt.

20 parts of bone meal.

40 parts of lime.



Heifers come on heat when they are 20 months old. The best age for the first service is 27months. Gestation (period of pregnancy) is about 9 months or 283days. During the gestation period, the constitution and the life of the heifer change. It continues to grow to bear calf and prepare to produce milk for the young calf. The heifers should be given a better treatment particularly in feeding and handling, in dry season, grazing alone is enough. In dry season, hay and silage should be fed with concentrate in addition to grazing.



Two months before calving, the heifer should be brought to the milking herd to accustom it to handling. It should be fed heavily.

The heavy feeding before calving is known as "steaming up".

All heifers must be vaccinated against contagious abortion when 4 – 8months months old and against rinderpest when eight months old.



(i) Management and feeding during milking: It is not essential to over-expose milking animals to sun more than is necessary. they should be encouraged to graze at night. Concentrates should be fed both in the pasture and in the yards. Shelters should be constructed both in the grazing field and in the yards; shelters should be open to the prevailing winds. Water sprays and air fan should be installed in the yards to keep the floors as cool as possible. Whenever possible, dairy animals should be reared indoors and this must he the practice in northern Nigeria to check tsetse-flies.



Out-door cows should be rotationally grazed. It is best to move animals daily. The best method is close grazing or close, by this method, the animals are given exactly the area that the need for one grazing. This is achieved by fencing and if need be by tethering the animals.

Grazing alone is sufficient for the production of 4.5 litres of K Above this, they should be given concentrates according to the live weight of the animal and the quantity of milk produced. Feed the concentrate twice a day while milking is going on. A milicentrate mixture consists of:

3 parts guinea corn grains

2 parts groundnut cake

3 parts palm kernel meal

2 parts dusa

3 per cent mineral mixture



This should be fed at the rate of ¼ kg of mixture for each 4.5 litres of milk produced.



(ii) Milking: Milking should he done twice a day, in the morning and in the evening. It is essential when milking a cow tin the first lime to prevent her from being frightened or getting excited. Tools for milking should not be associated with pain the cow will never let down milk. Always milk quickly. Before milking operation, the cow has to be stimulated. The pull of the calf on the teat of the udder of the cow gives the stimulus. The action of the calf could be imitated when hand milking is used. Dry hands should be used. Two teats are pulled alternatively each occasion into the bucket. It is necessary to clean them with warm water before milking.

Cow may not let down milk if the calves are not neaf Therefore the calves may be brought near such cows. During milking, all the milk must be extracted from the udder, milking is not complete, there is the tendency for the cow to dr off too soon. When a cow is to be dried off. it is essential restrict milking gradually.



The first heat occurs about 50 days after calving and it recurs i average of 21 days, if there is no service or if there is pregnancy. It is best to service the animals on about the 85th day after calving. This results in calving at 12 months interval. Older cows should be milked for 305 days and dried off preparatory for calving in two months. Heifers should get longer drying periods. They should be milked only for nine months and dried off for three months.



Dry cows should subsist on grazing alone until 8-12 weeks from calving when they should receive 1kg of concentrate a day

(c) Management of Bull: The general feeding and management of young bulls should be similar to those of heifer. When mature, they should be fed as dry cows.



(i) Stud Bulls: These are bulls used for service. Bulls are used service when they attain the age of two years. They reach the peak breeding power from three to six years. A young bull of service one or two times a week. Older bulls can service five tinier a week bull may be allowed to service cows once in a year.



(ii) Work Bulls: Bulls for work should be trained to draw ploughs when they are two years old. Bull calves intended for work should be castrated at a very early stage.

During the wet season, grazing alone is sufficient to maintain the animals and produce three hours of work per day. For each additional hour of work ½kg of dose should be fed in addition. In dry season, feed up to 6kg of mixed fodders in addition to grazing and extra ½kg of dose or its equivalent for each hour of work. For three weeks before ploughing begins,


don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics



HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

SOIL FERTILITY IMPROVEMENT SYSTEMS







SOIL FERTILITY AND management

1. explain the that means of soil fertility a nd a fertile soil2. outline the numerous strategies of soil fertility control.
three. kingdom the blessings and disadvantages of each technique.

https://www.fabioclass.com/2019/05/functions-of-plant-nutrients-and-their.html

Soil fertility is the ability of the soil to deliver mineral nutrient
factors to crop.

The nutrients must be in adequate quantities and in
appropriate proportions to decorate crop manufacturing. A fertile soil
ie that which includes ok nutrient factors required through crops.

2.1 traits of a Fertile Soil
1. excessive cation alternate ability (C.E.C.)
2. precise water holding potential
three. ok humus contents

read my post on types of soil and their properties

4. excellent granular (Spheroidal)
five. without difficulty tilled (true work-ability)
6. important factors to be had in required forms and amount.

occasionally, a soil won't be capable of produce precise crops although
it is fertile. this is because of the incapability of the soil to make
nutrients available to the crops in the right quantity. this could occur
due to numerous elements which includes:
(a) too much acids or bases inside the soil.
(b) bad soil structure.
(c) the share of the different soil debris gift inside the soil
(Texture).
(d) Climatic factors inclusive of amount of rainfall and temperature.
(e) the character of the clay lattice.
(f) Cation change capability of the soil.








strategies of Soil Fertility management
There are several methods that may be used to hold the fertility of the
soil. They encompass bush fallowing, cover cropping, rotation cropping,
utility of natural and inorganic fertilizers.

1. Bush fallowing in detail here
that is the exercise of leaving a farm-land uncultivated for a time
period. this is to allow the soil to regain its misplaced nutrients in
natural form. for instance, leaves from the shrubs and herbs drop and
dcray consequently adding manure to the soil.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON


89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION

147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

benefits
1. it may correctly preserve soil fertility in regions with low
pressure on land.
2. It protects the soil in opposition to erosion.
three. Fallen leaves decompose to increase organic matter content
material of the soil.
4. Evaporation of soil water and leaching of minerals are reduced.
5. there may be additionally a increase of residing organisms within
the soil which arc beneficial for soil change and
granulation.
risks
1. it's far a completely gradual procedure of maintaining soil
fertility.
2. It does no longer match the growing call for for land due to populace
growth.
3. The period allowed for fallow isn't always enough for good enough
replacement of misplaced vitamins.

2. cover Cropping
that is the developing of crops purposely to provide cover for the.
soil. crops together with melon, cow-pea (trailing type), groundnut,
sweet potato, and others can be grown along aspect the primary
vegetation to provide cover for the soil. Others like pueraria.
mucuna and centrosema can be used in plantations or on fallow lands.
https://www.fabioclass.com/2019/05/functions-of-plant-nutrients-and-their.html
advantages
1. They protect the soil in opposition to erosion.
2. Evaporation of soil water is decreased.
three. They prevent the leaching of beneficial mineral elements within
the soil.
four. They suppress weeds at the farmland
five. Their fallen leaves decompose to feature organic count number to
the soil.
6. where legumes are used, they assist to boom the nitrogen content of
the soil because of the motion of root nodule micro organism
7. They may be worked into the soil as inexperienced
eight. They help to maintain pretty solid soil temperature "'

hazards
1. cowl plants compete with the main vegetation for nutrient factors
and available water.
2. They growth the charge of loss of water in the soil via
transpiration.

3. Rotation Cropping
this is the growing of crops on a chunk of land year after year in a
particular order.

benefits
1. using a terrific rotational system of cropping permits soil for
use constantly with out rapid lack of important nutrients.
2. it's miles an excellent system for use where land is scarce.
three. it's far a labour saving machine as the same land is prepared
for planting every yr.
four. Weeds are successfully checked.
five. Erosion is reduced due to the fact the land isn't uncovered.
6. It reduces the building up, of host unique illnesses and pests.

hazards
The essential disadvanitage of this method is that continuous tillage of
the floor soil renders it unfastened and without difficulty eroded.'

4. organic MANURING
Manures are flora and animal materials which can be added to the soil to
deliver nutrieiits wanted for the growth of vegetation. A well
decomposed organic rely is referred to as humus. Humus is a wealthy
supply of plant vitamins appropriate for vegetable gardening.

sorts of-Organic Manures
The most important types of organic manures are green manure, form
backyard manure and compost manure








(i) green manures: those are undecomposed inexperienced plant life
parts which are turned into the soil. a few flowers are grown specially
to be worked or dug intp the floor to serve as source of plant
vitamins. Examples arc mucuna, centrosema. pueraria. calopogonium and
sparkling green weeds. that is carried out generally while they're young
and succulent tor easy decomposition. It also includes the growing of
leguminous flowers for the motive of soil development. this is the
motive for growth in yield of other vegetation planted after a legume,
together with groundnut, pigeon peas, and cowpea which upload nitrogen
in the soil has been harvested.

blessings
(a) It gives natural matter to the soil to enhance its bodily
situation.
(b) It substances nitrogen and other plant vitamins.
(c) It protects the soil towards erosion.
(d) It reduces the lack of nutrients through leaching.

dangers
(a) there is competition for fundamental nutrients and water.
(b) they will harbor diseases and pests of crop plant.
(c) it could be luxurious to grow green manure plants.

it's far advised that vegetation for use as green manure ought to
(a) easily set up.
(b) develop fast.
(c) Produce plentiful succulent shoots and roots in a brief time.
(d) effortlessly cowl the ground.
(e) develop on negative soils.

(ii) Farm backyard manure: that is a mixture of animal droppings,
urine, meals stays and bedding or clutter. Manure from chicken, goats
and sheep are the richest varieties of farm yard manure. they're
accompanied via those of pigs, horse and farm animals.

The materials are heaped underneath a shed to decompose for someday
before use. They might be used direct on the farm. They ought to be
nicely dealt with, as an excessive amount of publicity can also lead to
breakdown of the vitamins.



The greater volatile parts which includes
nitrogen might be lost as ammonia gasoline. it is frequently higher to
combine manures from exclusive styles of animals to be used as pen
manure than to apply handiest one type.
The high-quality of farm backyard manure relies upon on:
(i) The species of animals generating the substances
(ii) Age and situation of the animal.
(iii) The sort of feed given to the animal.
(iv) Nature and amount of clutter. this is, whether absorbent materials
are used as bedding
(v) The handling and techniques of garage earlier than use at the farm.

Farm backyard manure may be carried out by using broadcasting earlier
than tillage in particular whilst the soil is wet or wet. it may be
spread on the bed and blended with the soil before planting.


blessings
1. It carries ail the required plant nutrients.
2. It is reasonably reasonably-priced as it is able to be received from
the farm.


3. It has a lasting effect on the soil.
4. It binds unfastened sandy soil together.
5. It additionally loosens compact clay soils.
6. It permits the soil to absorb and preserve moisture effortlessly.


risks
1. it's far very cumbersome.
2. It calls for a lot labour throughout utility.
3. It has the tendency to inspire rapid increase of weeds.

(iii) Compost manure: that is the decayed plant and animal stays in
thousands or stacks or pits, used as
manure at the farm.

The substances wanted for compost making consist of grass cuttings,
hedge trimmings, weeds, vegetable wastes, leaves and other organic
wastes from the kitchen. Ash or lime or animal dungs or vintage compost,
chemical activators consisting of sulphate of ammonia are also
delivered. young and succulent plant components must be used in place of
woody and tough components. that is due to the fact decomposition is
easier and incorporates much nutrients for healthful plant increase.

A suitable area of the farm, preferably near the threshold, have to be
chosen. The region need to no longer be water-logged. whilst prepared
for the duration of the dry season, there have to be a nearby water
source.

strategies of compost making: strategies can be used in compost making.
these are the pit method and the stack or heap approach. The pit
technique is utilized in areas of low rainfall or inside the dry season
at the same time as the stack or heap method is utilized in high
rainfall areas or in the course of the wet season. Whichever approach is
used , the tactics as well as the materials used remain the same.


procedures of compost making

1. Dig lour pits or peg out four areas.

 2. add kitchen wastes, yam peelings, orange pores and skin and pulp,
rotten end result and something that rots without problems.

3. Then, upload grass cutnnus. hedge trimmings, vegetable wastes and
illled or the preferred top is compress.

4. Repeat this method until the pit is crammed or the favored top
reached if heap method is used.

 5. cover the pinnacle with soil to prevent the entering of flies.

 6. Insert a stick at one cease or at the centre in case of pit approach.
that is referred to as a "tester". It detects if decomposition is going
on or now not. The stick can be warm if there is decomposition after
about five days in any other case, it will likely be bloodless.

7. flip materials or the content material of pit A or heap A into B
after weeks. top off pit or heap A. Repeat this step till pit or heap D
is reached and the desired amount acquired.
8. cowl the final products with appropriate materials until it is ready
for use. this will save you the loss of important nutrients due to
robust sun or rain water.

‘Starters' are substances used to provoke decomposition process of
compost substances. Examples are animal wastes, old compost or materials
that rot without problems.

chemical substances consisting of sulphate of ammonia could be used to
induce decaying technique inside the absence of starters. Such chemical
substances are called 'activators

blessings of compost manure
1. It gives assets of food to living organisms within the soil. ics
are earthworms, termites and microbes.

2. It provides vitamins to the soil for expanded ciop yield,
3. It improves the physical circumstance of Iru' '.oil eistructure
and texture.
four. It allows to preserve identical amounts of acid and ha-. the
soil.
5. It helps to preserve soil moisture and stops erosion
6. It has a modifying impact on soil temperature;

hazards
1. It entails a whole lot labour in practise.
2. it's time regarding and not economic for use in massive farms.
three. it could purpose sizzling if applied while not completely matured

4. it may introduce ailment inflicting sellers. this may manifest if
now not might also well handled or allowed to mature befonb use.

application OF INORGANIC MANURES OR

FERTILIZERS

 Inorganic manures or fertilizers are chemical substances in of powder,
granules or crystals which might be brought to the soil to provide
nutrients that are poor. Fertilizers are manufactured inside the
enterprise from rocks and different substances.

forms of fertilizers
There are sorts of fertilizers:

(i) straight or unmarried or easy fertilizers: those are fertilizers
that include one of the major plant vitamins in the form vegetation can
use. They comprise one primary element consisting of nitrogen, potassium
and phosphorus in their composition. these are known as the important
thing vitamins.

Examples are sulphate of ammonia, urea, ammonia nitrate,
sodium nitrate with nitrogen as the key nutrient. also, single superb
phosphate, focused terrific phosphate and calcium meta-phosphate all
incorporate phosphorus as their key element. Others are nutriate of
potash (potassium (1) chloride), crude potash and
sulphate-of-potash-alliavmg -potassium-asthe-ir-primary element.
(ii) blended or complex or compound fertilizers: these are
fertilizers that comprise or extra number one nutrient elements pill
filler substances.



The vitamins are in ratios and the ratio refers to
the proportion of the major vitamins to each other. Examples are N.P.k:
15:15:15, 20:20:20, N.P.okay: Mg. 12: 12:17:2 and others

handling of fertilizers: as a result of the inherent hazards of
fertilizers including stinging sensations, blisters, itching irritations
and other skin sicknesses, care ought to be taken to avoid bodily
contacts.

 the person need to usually placed on gloves and
protective clothing while managing fertilizers.

storage of fertilizers:

 Fertilizers are saved in bags of synthetic
fabric which prevent access of water and moist air that might cause
dissolution.

Tarpaulins must be used to offer additional protection to the
fertilizers saved at ports warehouses, subject depots of the Ministry of
Agriculture and other corporations.

Farmers should assemble a simple fertilizer keep among their stead.

They
should be stored in another way consistent with kinds for clean
identification and get admission to. platforms of wood should be made on
which the baggage are stacked, up to a widespread top, to avoid
slippage and allow for smooth stock taking. It have to not rest on the
wail. Air move ought to be encouraged in the store.

blessings of fertilizers:
1. they bring about growth in crop yield.

 

2. They boom farm profits.

3. They growth the productivity of terrible soils.

 

4. they are easily transported to where they are wanted in comparison
to natural manures.

 

5. they may be used on huge scale.
6. The nutrients in fertilizers are readily to be had to plants.

negative aspects

1. Fertilizers are easily leached within the soil.

 

2. a few fertilizers leave acidic residues inside the soil.

 

3. Inorganic manures do now not improve soil structure.

 

4. a number of the nutrients are effortlessly misplaced as gases under
increase warmness of the solar. instance is ammonia.

 

5. Fertilizers are
highly-priced you obtain.

 

6. they may be occasionally no longer to be had at the time of need.

strategies of applying fertilizers

1. Broadcasting:

 this is in which fertilizer is calmly unfold on the
farmland. It may want to be accomplished before ploughing or
tillage to incorporate it into the soil.

2. side dressing or utility:

this is wherein small amount of
fertilizer is placed on one or two sides of man or woman crop.

3. Ring utility:

A shallow trench is dug round man or woman crop
some centimeters far from the stem. Fertilizer is then sprinkled in
the trench and included with soil.

4. Row application: that is where fertilizer is applied in row few centimeters from the vegetation. it is suitable whilst plants are
planted in rows

5. pinnacle dressing: that is wherein fertilizer is applied to the
surface soil in the reach of the roots of crops at some stage in the
growing stage

6. Foliage crops: that is where soluble fertilizers are applied as
sprays at the leaves of crops.

take a look at

QUESTIONS
1. what is soil fertility? How is it one-of-a-kind from a fertile soil?

 2.

(a) listing 5 approaches through which the fertility of the soil
may be maintained.


(b) point out benefits and the dangers of the use of every manner
referred to.
three. name 3 styles of organic manures.
four.

How would you prepare appropriate natural manure for use on your
school farm':' 5. listing three blessings and two negative aspects of each sort of
organic manure.

6. list kinds of inorganic fertilizer you have studied. point out three
advantages and downsides in their makes use of in crop manufacturing
7. Enumerate 5 strategies of fertilizers utility.
8. Write quick notes on the subsequent:
(b) blended or compound fertilizers
(c) instantly or easy fertilizers
(d) green manure
(e) cowl cropping









9. (a) what is rotation cropping?

3. Rotation Cropping
This is the growing of crops on a piece of land year after year in a definite order.
SOIL FERTILITY AND management

Advantages
1. The use of a good rotational system of cropping enables soil to be used continuously without rapid loss of essential nutrients.
2. It is an ideal system to be used where land is scarce.
3. It is a labour saving system as the same land is prepared for planting every year.
4. Weeds are effectively checked.
5. Erosion is reduced because the land is not exposed.
6. It reduces the build up, of host specific diseases and pests.

Disadvantages
The major disadvantage of this method is that continuous tillage of the surface soil renders it loose and easily eroded.'

4. ORGANIC MANURING
Manures are plants and animal materials that are added to the soil to supply nutrieiits needed for the growth of crops. A well decomposed organic matter is called humus. Humus is a rich source of plant nutrients suitable for vegetable gardening.

Types of Organic Manures
The major types of organic manures are green manure, form yard manure and compost manure

(i) Green manures: These are undecomposed green plants parts which are turned into the soil. Some plants are grown specifically to be worked or dug intp the ground to serve as source of plant nutrients. Examples arc mucuna, centrosema. pueraria. calopogonium and fresh green weeds. This is done mostly when they are young and succulent tor easy decomposition. It also involves the growing of leguminous plants for the purpose of soil improvement. This is the reason for increase in yield of other crops planted after a legume, such as groundnut, pigeon peas, and cowpea which add nitrogen In the soil has been harvested.

Advantages
(a) It provides organic matter to the soil to improve its physical condition.
(b) It supplies nitrogen and other plant nutrients.
(c) It protects the soil against erosion.
(d) It reduces the loss of nutrients through leaching.
SOIL FERTILITY AND management


Disadvantages
(a) There is competition for basic nutrients and water.
(b) They may harbour diseases and pests of crop plant.
(c) It may be expensive to grow green manure plants.

It is advised that plants to be used as green manure should
(a) Easily establish.
(b) Grow quickly.
(c) Produce abundant succulent shoots and roots in a short time.
(d) Easily cover the ground.
(e) Grow on poor soils.

(ii) Farm yard manure: This is a mixture of animal droppings, urine, food remains and beddings or litter. Manure from poultry, goats and sheep are the richest forms of farm yard manure. They are followed by those of pigs, horse and cattle.

The materials are heaped under a shed to decompose for sometime before use. They could be used direct on the farm. They should be properly handled, as too much exposure may lead to breakdown of the nutrients. The more volatile constituents such as nitrogen could be lost as ammonia gas. It is often better to mix manures from different types of animals to be used as pen manure than to apply only one type.
The quality of farm yard manure depends on:
(i) The species of animals producing the materials
(ii) Age and condition of the animal.
(iii) The type of feed given to the animal.
(iv) Nature and amount of litter. That is, whether absorbent materials are used as beddings
(v) The handling and methods of storage before use on the farm.

Farm yard manure can be applied by broadcasting before tillage especially when the soil is moist or wet. It can be spread on the bed and mixed with the soil before planting.


Advantages
1. It contains ail the required plant nutrients.
2. It is reasonably cheap as it can be obtained from the farm.
3. It has a lasting effect on the soil.
4. It binds loose sandy soil together.
5. It also loosens compact clay soils.
6. It enables the soil to absorb and retain moisture easily.


Disadvantages
1. It is very bulky.
2. It requires much labour during application.
3. It has the tendency to encourage rapid growth of weeds.

(iii) Compost manure: This is the decayed plant and animal remains in heaps or stacks or pits, used as
manure on the farm.

The materials needed for compost making include grass cuttings, hedge trimmings, weeds, vegetable wastes, leaves and otner organic wastes from the kitchen. Ash or lime or animal dungs or old compost, chemical activators such as sulphate of ammonia are also added. Young and succulent plant parts should be used instead of woody and tough parts. This is because decomposition is easier and contains much nutrients for healthy plant growth.

A suitable area of the farm, preferably near the edge, should be chosen. The area should not be water-logged. When prepared during the dry season, there should be a nearby water source.

Methods of compost making: Two methods can be used in compost making. These are the pit method and the stack or heap method. The pit method is used in areas of low rainfall or in the dry season while the stack or heap method is used in high rainfall areas or during the rainy season. Whichever method is used , the processes as well as the materials used remain the same.

Processes of compost making
1. Dig lour pits or peg out four areas.
2. Add kitchen wastes, yam peelings, orange skin and pulp, rotten fruits and anything that rots easily.
3. Then, add grass cuttings. hedge trimmings, vegetable wastes and leaves or the desired height is compress.
4. Repeat this process until the pit is filled or the desired height reached if heap method is used.
5. Cover the top with soil to prevent the entering of flies.
6. Insert a stick at one end or at the centre in case of pit method. This is called a "tester". It detects if decomposition is going on or not. The stick will be hot if there is decomposition after about 5 days or else, it will be cold.
7. Turn materials or the content of pit A or heap A into B after two weeks. Refill pit or heap A. Repeat this step until pit or heap D is reached and the desired quantity obtained.
8. Cover the final products with suitable materials until it is ready for use. This will prevent the loss of important nutrients due to strong sun or rain water.

‘Starters' are materials used to initiate decomposition process of compost materials. Examples are animal wastes, old compost or materials that rot easily.

Chemicals such as sulphate of ammonia could be used to induce decaying process in the absence of starters. Such chemicals are called 'activators''.


TO LEARN MORE ON THE GLOBAL SOIL IMPROVEMENT SYSTEM FOLLOW HERE
don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics

popular post of all time

new posts

Homogamy and cleistogamy as a condition necessary for self pollination to take place

Homogamy pollination process Definition of homogamy Homogamy refers to the ripening of the anthers and stigma of a bisexual flower at the ...