THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMALS

In reality plants and animals are living things but there are still some basic differences between these groups of living thing. Here I am going give a comprehensive detail of these all these differences in the chart below.

PLANTS

1. Most green plants makes their own food through a process called photosynthesis. Also known as AUTOTROPHIC MODE OF FEEDING. But non green plants cannot make food through photosynthesis
2. Growth is mainly at the growing regions or parts of the plant itself known as Epical meristem. So growth is continuous throughout life.
3. Plants are not active. They don’t have developed organs for movement.
4. Plant have slow response to external stimuli
5. They possess no special excretory system
6. They possess no special sensory organ
7. Food is stored mainly as starch like in fungi
8. They have no fixed number of part, branching is continuous
9. Gaseous exchange is through the entire body
10. The cells of a typical plant has a rigid, non-living cellulose cl wall
11. Plant cells have large vacuoles containing cell sap






ANIMALS

1. Animals cannot out photosynthesis but widely depends on foods made by plants. Hence they are heterotrophic
2. Growth takes place all over the body or intercalary. And it is limited to a certain period in their life time




HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL





88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMAL KINGDOM


KINGDOM ANIMALIA

The animal kingdom is subdivided into the following sub-groups
ANIMALIA
PHYLUM
1. PORIFERA
2. COELERENTERATA
3. PLATYHELMINTHES
4. NEMATODA
5. ANNELIDA
6. MOLUSCA
7. ARTHROPODA
8. ECHINODERMATA
9. CHORDAQTA
THIS IS TE MAJOR GROUPS IN ANIMAL KINGDOM

The first eight phyla of the animal kingdom belongs to the sub-phyla invertebrates i.e. they are animals without backbone and external skeleton while the Phylum Chordata belongs to the Phylum Vertebrata i.e. animals with backbone and internal skeleton
Here I want to take a little time to delve into these groups of animals to explain with more precise details of their various characteristics.






1. PORIFERA
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PORIERAS
i. They are simple aquatic invertebrates PORIFERA
ii. They do not move about but are attached to rocks or shells-PONIFERA
iii. They live in colonies-PONIFERA
iv. They are primitive multi-cellular animals-PONIFERA
v. They have asymmetrical bodies which is that their bodies can be divided into two equal halves or parts-PONIFERA
vi. They are merely colonies of cells hence they lack specialized tissues-PONIFERA
vii. Examples of animals in this group is the sponges-PONIFERA
2. COELENTARATA
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COELENTARATA
I. COELENTARATA ARE MULTI-CELLULAR ANIMALS
II. Coelenterata body is made up of two layers
III. Coelenterata are mainly aquatic organisms
IV. Coelenterata bodies possesses radial symmetry
V. Coelenterata have soft jelly body
VI. Coelenterata possesses tentacles and stinging cells for capturing their prey
VII. Coelenterata reproduces asexually by budding
VIII. Example of Coelenterata are jelly fish, Hydra, Anemones and Corals

3. PLATYHEMENTHES
CHARACTERISTICS OF PLATYHEMENTHES
i. Platyhementhes are multi-cellular flat worms
ii. platyhementhes are bilaterally symmetrical
iii. platyhementhes do not have body cavity or lumen
iv. platyhementhes body is made up of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm
v. platyhementhes are mainly parasites in man and a few others in animals
vi. platyhementhes are also known as flat worms are hermaphrodites and reproduces sexually
vii. examples of Platyhementhes are Tapeworm, Planaria, Liverflukes (fasciola) and Bloodfluke which is also known as Schistosoma






4. NEMATODA/NEMATODES
CHARACTERISTICS OF NEMATODES ALSO KNOWN AS ROUNDWORMS
I. Nematodes have round and cylindrical bodies
II. Nematodes lacks body cavity
III. Nematodes are bilaterally symmetrical
IV. Some Nematodes are parasites in man while some are free living
V. Nematode body is made up of three layers
VI. Some Nematodes are hermaphrodites while some of them reproduce sexually
VII. Examples of Nematodes are roundworms, hookworms, guinea worms, threadworms and filarial worms

5. ANNELIDA/ANNELID
CHARACTERISTICS OF ANNELIDA
i. Annelids have internal and external segmented bodies
ii. Annelids have long cylindrical bodies
iii. Annelids have a true body cavity also called Coelom
iv. Annelids are aquatic while some are terrestrial, which means they live in the soil
v. Annelids elementary canals has two openings, the mouth and Anus
vi. Annelids reproduce sexually while some are hermaphrodites
vii. Annelids bodies are made up of three layers
viii. Examples are earthworms, leeches and tubeworms


6. MOLUSCA
CHARACTERISTICS OF MOLLUSCA
I. MOLLUSCS HAVE SOFT AND Unsegmented bodies
II. Mollusca have tentacles in their heads
III. Mollusca possesses muscular foot-like body adapted for crawling
IV. Mollusca body is covered by a soft tissue called mantle
V. Some Mollusca have calcareous shell e.g. snails, while some don’t have shell e.g. the Octopus and Slug
VI. Mollusca are aquatic mostly but a few are terrestrial
VII. Mollusca eyes and tentacles are mainly used for navigation and sensitivity
VIII. Examples of Mollusca are Squid, mussels, periwinkles, snails. Oysters, Octopus and Slug


7. ARTHROPODA
CHARACTERISTICS OF ARTHROPODA
The Arthropoda is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom. It is sub-divided into the following
i. CRUSTACEA
ii. INSECTA
iii. ARACHNIDA
iv. MYRIAPODA
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ARTHROPODA
i. Arthropoda possesses segmented bodies
ii. Arthropoda have hard, rigid exoskeleton made of chitin
iii. Arthropoda have joined appendages or jointed legs used for feeding, movement, reproduction and some serves as sensory organs
iv. Arthropoda exhibits moulting or ecdysis. Which means they shed their exoskeleton at certain stages to permit growth
v. Arthropoda are aquatic while some are terrestrial
vi. Arthropoda bodies are divided into two or three segments such as the head, thorax and abdomen
vii. Arthropoda bodies are bilaterally symmetrical
viii. Arthropoda are triploblastic, i.e. they have three body layers
ix. Arthropoda have various means of respiration which are gills, trachea, lung book or the body surface
x. Examples are
a. INSECT- GRASSHOPPER, COCKROACH, HOUSEFLY, BUTTERFLY
b. ARACHNIDA- SPIDER, SCORPION, TICKS AND MITES
c. CRUSTACEANS- CRAB, CRAYFISH, SHRIMPS, PRAWNS AND LOBSTERS
d. MYRIOPDA- CENTIPEDES AND MILIPEDES

8. ECHINODERMATA
CHARACTERISTICS OF Echinodermata
i. Echinodermata bodies are radially symmetrical
ii. Echinodermata are mainly aquatic animals
iii. Echinodermata have spiny skin
iv. Echinodermata are triploblastic animals
v. Echinodermata have no brain nor head and their body is not segmented
vi. Echinodermata has tube feet which is used for movement
vii. Examples are Starfish, Sea urchins, Bristle Star and Sea cucumbers

9. CHORDATA
CHARACTERISTICS OF CHORDATA
The chordata has a sub-phylum called Vertebrata.
The vertebrates are characterized by the presence of backbone or vertebral column. They are divided into five classes. These are
i. Pisces-Fishes
ii. Amphibia-Amphibians
iii. Reptilia-Reptiles
iv. Aves-Birds
v. Mammalia-Mammals






General characteristics of Vertebrata
i. The vertebrates possesses an internal jointed skeleton made up of cartilage or bones
ii. Vertebrates have bilaterally symmetrical bodies
iii. Vertebrates body is divided into head, trunk and tail
iv. Vertebrates have two pairs of limbs. The pectoral limbs form the fore-limbs or wings while the pelvic limbs forms the hind-limbs or legs
v. Vertebrates have well developed nervous system with brain and spinal cord
vi. Vertebrates have well developed sense organs
vii. Vertebrates have a well enclosed blood system which comprises the blood vessels and the heart
viii. Vertebrates have efficient excretory system such as the kidneys
ix. Vertebrates are triploblastic animals
x. Vertebrates have skins which may be naked or have a covering of scales, hairs or feathers

A. PISCES-FISHES
CHARACTERISTICS OF FISHES OR PISCES
i. Fishes or Pisces are aquatic animals. They can be found in the sea, lakes, rivers and ponds
ii. Pisces or Fishes skins are covered with scales but few are without scales
iii. Fishes or Pisces have fins which are used for movement in water
iv. Pisces or Fishes are Poikilothermic or cold-blooded animals. That means that their body temperature varies with that of its environment
v. Pisces or Fishes have gills that are used for gases exchange
vi. Pisces or fishes have lateral lines system. This is used for detection of vibrations and pressure in water
vii. Reproduction In Pisces or Fishes are mostly sexual but they have this external type of fertilization process
viii. Pisces or Fishes have what we term as swim bladder which they use to maintain buoyancy. That is floating on top water
ix. Fishes are Oviparous animals. That is to say they develop their eggs outside the body of an adult female fish
x. Pisces or Fishes have two chambered heart
xi. Pisces or Fishes show Parental care for their young ones
Fishes or Pisces can be further divided into two groups based on their skeletal system. These are bony and cartilaginous fishes
i. Bony fish: these are fishes with bony skeleton e.g. tilapia, carp, salmon mackerel, herring
ii. Cartilaginous fish: these are fishes whose bones are made up of cartilages, e.g. dog-fish, minnow fish, skate, ray-fish and sharks

B. AMPHIBIA
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AMPHIBIANS
I. Amphibians are poikilothermic or cold-blooded animals
II. Amphibians have two pairs of limbs, fore-limbs and hind-limbs
III. Amphibians have naked/moist and glandular skin with no external scales
IV. Amphibians carry out gaseous exchange by gills, lungs, skin and mouth
V. Amphibians reproduces sexually while fertilization takes place externally
VI. Amphibians young ones called tadpole are herbivores while the adult amphibians are carnivores
VII. Amphibians have poisonous glands on their skins used for defense
VIII. Amphibians have three chambered heart
IX. Amphibians have sticky tongue which can be protruded or retracted quickly
X. Amphibians exhibits dual lifestyle. They live both in water and on land
XI. Amphibians do not show parental care
XII. Examples are toad, frogs, salamander and newts



C. REPTILIA
CHARACTERISTICS OF REPTILES
i. Reptiles are poikilothermic, which is cold-blooded animals
ii. Reptiles have dry skin, covered with scales
iii. Reptiles have two pairs of limbs except snakes
iv. Some reptiles are aquatic animals e.g. crocodile, turtles while others are terrestrial e.g. snakes and lizards
v. Reptiles reproduce sexually and fertilization is internal
vi. Reptiles have lungs which are used for gaseous exchange
vii. Reptiles have incomplete developed four chambered heart
viii. Reptiles have oviparous mode of reproduction i.e. the females lays fertilized eggs
ix. Reptiles have homodont dentition
x. Reptiles do not show parental care for young ones
xi. Examples
xi. Examples are lizards, wall gecko, tortoise, snakes, crocodile, turtle and chameleon


D. AVES-BIRDS
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIRDS
i. Birds are homoeothermic or warm blooded animals
ii. Birds entire body are covered with feathers except for the legs that has scales
iii. Birds have two pairs of limbs
iv. Birds have wings which are used for flight
v. Birds have beaks and not teeth which are used for feeding
vi. Birds have rigid and hollow bones with air sacs which them very light during flight
vii. Birds have a four chambered heart
viii. They reproduce sexually and fertilization is internal
ix. Birds exhibits Oviparous mode of reproduction
x. Birds have lungs which are used for gaseous exchange
xi. Birds show parental care
xii. Examples are pigeon, domestic fowl, duck, parrot, eagle, hawk, sparrow and weaver bird

E. MAMMALIA
CHARACTERISTICS OF MAMMALS
i. Mammals are homoiothermic or warm blooded animals
ii. Mammalian bodies are usually covered with hairs
iii. Mammals have heterodont dentition , meaning they have different sets of teeth
iv. The mammalian internal cavity is divided into chest and abdomen by a muscular diaphragm
v. They possess lungs used for gaseous exchange
vi. Mammals have two pairs of limbs
vii. The mammalian skin contains glands like the sweat, sebaceous and mammary glands
viii. Reproduction in mammals is sexual and fertilization is internal
ix. Mammals have viviparous mode of reproduction, which means they give birth to their young ones alive
x. Mammals have well developed brain
xi. They have four chambered heart
xii. The body of a typical mammal is bilaterally symmetrical
xiii. Mammals have external ear called pinnae
xiv. Mammals show parental care to their young ones
xv. Examples are man, rabbit, goad, dog, sheep, whales, lion and elephant


don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below






HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

WHAT IS A CELL



THE CELL

WHAT IS CELL? IS CELL A LIVING THING?
Definition of a cell
The cell is defined as the structural and functional unit of a living thing or organism. In other words, the cell is the simplest, smallest and basic unit of life.
All living things including plants and animals are made up of cells. The cell is regarded as the basic of all living thing because they or it can carry out life activity such as feeding, reproduction, respiration, movement and excretion. All these characteristics exhibited by a cell are the reasons the cell is called a living thing.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING ORGANISMS BASED ON THE NUMBER OF CELLS

Living organisms are classified into two major group based on their number cells, they are
a. UNICELLULAR OR ACELLULAR ORGANISMS
These organisms which consists only of one cell. Examples of unicellular organisms are Amoeba, Chlamydomonas, Euglena and paramecium
b. MULTI-CELLULAR ORGANISMS
These are organisms which consists of two or more cells. Which means th4ese group of organisms is made up of multiple cells. Examples are Volvox, Spirogyra, man, flowering plants and birds






HISTORY OF THE CELL

Many scientists contributed to history of the cell theory. Amongst thee brave scientists are
1.

ROBERT HOOKS

Robert Hooks is an English scientist who should or can be seen as the father of cells. He was the first human to discover the existence of the honey comb structure of the cell in 1665.
In his book, Micrographia, he described his observations of a magnified thin slice of a cork of an oak tree. He established that the cork is made up of a thin component or rooms. He4 then named these components cells.

2.

FELIX DUJARDIN

This guy is a French Biologist in 1835 who discovered the cells are made up of living substances called protoplasm.

3.

MATTHIAS SCHLEIDEN

He is a German botanist who in 1838, revealed that the bodies of plants are made up of cells which are described as the units of life
4.

THEODOR SCHWANN

This is another German zoologist in 1839 who discovered that the bodies of animals are made up of cells. The discoveries of Schleiden and Theodor led to the postulation of the cell theory in the year 1839

5.

RUDOLF VON VIRCHOW,/h3>
This a German biologist in 1855 who wrote that all cells comes from previously existing cells

THE CELL THEORY

The cell theory states that
i. The cell is the structural and functional unit of living things
ii. All living organism are made up of cells
iii. All cells comes from previous existing cells
iv. That there is no cells apart from the life of the cells
v. All living things are either unicellular or multi-cellular organisms






THE MICROSCOPE

Definition of a microscope
The microscope is an instrument used in the laboratory to observe tiny structures of living organisms which cannot be seen or observed by the naked eyes.
Organisms which can only be seen with the aid of a microscope are called MICROSCOPIC organisms
When very tiny living things and small objects are viewed using the microscope, they become magnified and enlarged and the detailed structure can be seen properly and clearly. The study and the use of the microscope will enable us to observe and identify tiny living things and the structure they are made up of.

TYPES OF MICROSCOPE

The various types of microscope includes the following
i. Compound microscope
ii. Light microscope
iii. Electron microscope
iv. Hand lens
The hand lens is the simplest and the most commonly used magnifier in the laboratories for magnifying tiny living things and other objects

PARTS OF A MICROSCOPE

The microscope is made up of many parts which includes
i. The plane mirror: the plane mirror helps to direct light rays to the object for proper lightning so that the object can be seen properly
ii. THE BASE: this part of the microscope represent the metallic base which enables the microscope to rest properly on the table so as to prevent it from falling
iii. THE STAGE: this part of the microscope represent where the object to be observed is placed
iv. CLIPS: these are tiny structures attached to the microscope itself to help hold the objects for proper viewing
v. HANDLE/ARM: this part is used to carry the microscope itself
vi. CONDENSER: the condenser of the microscope consists of a powerful lens which condenses the light rays coming from the plane mirror and directs them to the objects under observation
vii. THE ROTATORY NASAL PIECE: this part of the microscope is where the objective lenses of varying magnifications are fitted. It can be rotated to allow for a better magnifying
viii. THE EYE PIECE LENSES: this part of the microscope is where the observer places his eyes for viewing the objects through the microscope
ix. ADJUSTMENT KNOBS: this part of the microscope is made up of two components are (a) Coarse adjustment and (b) Fine adjustment
x. THE OBJECTIVE LENS: this lens as part of the microscope, is usually placed slightly above the object, and it is used for magnification
HOW TO USE THE MICROSCOPE
i. Bring out the microscope from where it been stored or kept with the aid of its handle
ii. Clean the microscope gently with soft cotton or wool. Parts to be cleaned includes the following ,the eye piece, objective lenses, condenser, and other parts of the microscope
iii. Adjust the plane mirror in the direction of light in order to catch and direct the rays of light into the microscope
iv. Where necessary open the lid of the condenser
v. Place the slide of the object which is to be on the stage and use the clip to hold it firmly

vi. Proper adjustment is made on the objective lens so as to rest on the slide
vii. Adjust the coarse knob to bring out the object into focus
viii. When the object is brought into sharp focus, the fine adjustment knob is then used to make the object sharper
ix. The object or specimen is then examined carefully and the observations are recorded
x. The objects or specimen is then translated into diagram using the biology practical work book

THE BIOLOGY TEACHER IS EXPECTED TO GUIDE AND DEMONSTRATE THE USE OF MICROSCOPE TO STUDENTS IN THE LABORATORY

FORMS IN WHICH LIVING THINGS EXISTS

There are four main forms in which living cells exist. They are
i. Single and free-living organisms:
Independent or free living organisms are organisms which possess only one cell and are capable of living freely on their own. Each organism, even though they have only one cell can carry out all of life’s processes such as feeding, locomotion, excretion, respiration and reproduction, e.g. Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium and Chlamydomonas

a.

AMOEBA STRUCTURE:

An amoeba is generally shapeless and changes regularly. The protoplasm is made up nucleus and cytoplasm. Embedded in the cytoplasm are food vacuole and contractile vacuole. An amoeba moves with the aid of a pseudopodia
b.

PARAMECIUM STRUCTURE:,/h3> then paramecium is often described as having a slippers shape. The cytoplasm is composed of ectoplasm and endoplasm. The nucleus consists of micro-nucleus and mega-nucleus. The cytoplasm also houses the food vacuole, contractile vacuole and cyto-stome. Paramecium moves with the aid of a cilia
c.

EUGLINA VIRIDIS STRUCTURE

: Euglena viridis is a protist and a typical example of an organism sharing the characteristics of both plants and animals. The Euglena as an organism possesses flagellum, gullet, contractile vacuole, eye spot, pellicle, myonemes etc. which makes it an animal and also have chloroplast, pyrenoids and paramylum granules. Euglena moves with the aid of a flagellum
d.

CHLAMYDOMONAS STRUCTURE:

Chlamydomonas is a simple microscopic plant. Chlamydomonas is also a unicellular plant. Chlamydomonas moves with the aid of a flagellum. Chlamydomonas has eye spot, chloroplast, food vacuole and contractile vacuole.
e.
ii.

CELLS EXISTS AS A COLONY:

some organism are made up of many similar cells which are joined or massed together but cannot be differentiated from each other. These cells form a loosely arranged association of two or more cells but the cells cannot be differentiated from each other. This aggregation of independent or protist is called a colony. Examples of organisms that exist as a colony are Volvox, Pandorina and sponges
iii.

CELLS EXISTN AS A FILAMENT:

Filamentous cells are cells in which identical cells are joined end to end to form unbranded filament. Each cell function as an independent living cell. Such organism are multi-cellular and therefore exist as filament. Examples are Spirogyra, Zygnema, Oscilateria and Oedogonium.
iv.

CELLS AS PART OF A LIVING ORGANISM

in any multi-cellular organism, a group of numerous, similar cells arranged together and performing a specific function called a tissue. A group of similar tissues forming a layer in an organism which performs a specific function is called an organ. A group of organs which works together to perform a specific function are called a system. From the explanation above we can clinically say that cells leads to tissues, tissues leads to organ while organs leads to system and so we can conclusively say that the cell is the unit of living things.

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE CELL. INCLUDING THEIR COMPONENTS

STRUCTURE OF THE CELL
The structure of plant and animal cell can fully be understood through the aid of a microscope. The cell is composed of two protoplasm which can be divided into two main parts: they are cytoplasm and nucleus. Each cell, either plants or animals is bound4ed by a thin membrane. The cytoplasm is a fluid which consists of cytoplasmic organelles such as lysosome, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, vacuoles etc.
The nucleus is bounded by a nuclear membrane and it consists of chromosomes as chromatin granules and nucleus. The animal cell has centrosomes in addition. The plant cell has starch granules, cellulose cell wall and some plastids e.g. chloroplast.
The structure and functions of the components of the cells or organelles are outline in the chart or table below.
i.

NUCLEUS:

the nucleus a spherical body which is covered by a double membrane which contains hereditary materials, chromosomes and genes which is generally located in the centre of the cell, enclosed in the cytoplasm
Function of the nucleus
1. It controls all life activity of the cell
2. It stores hereditary information as it contains DNA inside chromosomes which takes place in cell division

ii.

CHROMOSOME:

these are located in the nucleus and contains deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA
Functions of the chromosome
Contains the DNA which stores genetic traits


MITOCHONDRIA:

These are oval or rod shaped. They are bounded by a double membrane. The inner membrane is folded and the interior is filled with matrix. The matrix contains ribosomes
Functions of MITOCHONDRIA
a. It often described as the power house of the cell. They are majorly the site of respiration or where energy is released from simple sugar

VACUOLE:

It occupies large central parts of the plant cell. It is lined with a membrane and filled with a cell sap. The cell sap acts as a store house for many substances

FUNCTIONS OF A VACUOLE:

It contain sap which acts as a Osmo-regulator by helping to remove excess water in the cells


NUCLEOULUS:

They are dense structures within the nucleus

FUNCTIONS OF THE NUCLEOLUS
They produce the ribosome for protein synthesis


ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM:

They are membrane like structure which forms channels within the cytoplasm

FUNCTIONS OF THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
They aid the transportation of materials through and within the cytoplasm








GOLGI-BODIES:

These are series of disc shapes sacks

FUNCTIONS OF GOLGI BODIES
They function in synthesis, packaging and distribution of materials

LYSOSOME:

These are thin walled bodies and they contain enzymes

FUNCTIONS OF LYSOSOME
They are sites for respiratory enzyme

CHLOROPLAST:

These are large green organelles in plant cell. They contain chlorophyll
FUNCTIONS OF THE CHLOROPLST
They contain chlorophyll which aid photosynthesis in plants

RIBOSOMES

These are small round bodies attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
FUNCTIONS OF THE RIBISOMES
They are responsible for protein synthesis

CELL WALL

It is a tough, fairly rigid structure that is freely permeable in plant cells
FUNCTIONS OF THE CELL WALL
a. It provides protection, shape and mechanical support for the cell
b. It also allows the free passage of nutrients in and out of the cell

CELL MEMBRANE

This is a flexible membrane made up of mainly proteins and lipids. It is selectively permeable.
FUNCTIONS OF THE CELL MEMBRANE
a. it plays a great role in selective absorption of MATERIALS
b. It also protects the cells

CENTOILES

These are two small granules near the nucleus of animal cells from which flagella or cilia
FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTOILES
a. They are very important in the cell division
b. They also serves as basal body


STARCH GRANULES

These mare oval or round structures mostly found in plant cells.

FUNCTIONS OF THE STARCH GRANULES
They store starch for the cell

SIMILIARITIES BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMAL CELLS

Both plants animal cells have the following lists in common
i. Nucleus
ii. Mitochondria
iii. Chromosomes
iv. Nucleolus
v. Golgi bodies
vi. Cytoplasm
vii. Endoplasmic reticulum
viii. Ribosome
ix. Cell membrane

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLANTS AND ANIMAL CELL

i. Plant cell has chloroplast—--Animal cell does not
ii. Plant cell is usually rectangular and definite in shape------Animal cell is spherical in shape or most often no definite shape
iii. Plant cell has rigid cell wall-------Animal cell has flexible cell membrane
iv. Plant cell has large vacuoles------Animal cell has very small vacuoles
v. Plant cell stores lipids as oil------Animal cell s stores lipids as fat
vi. Plant cell has the nucleus at the edge of the cytoplasm-----Animal cells has it’s nucleus at the centre of the cytoplasm

don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

WHAT IS GROWTH IN LIVING ORGANISMS



GROWTH IN LIVING ORGANISMS

WHAT IS GROWTH?
GROWTH IS SIMPLY THE INCREASE IN SIZE, OR MASS OF A BODY
We have already talked about a lot of things concerning growth in both plants and animals but in this very post I am going to deal mainly on the structural aspect of growth. It is sometimes very difficult to determine growth in organisms. So growth varies from one organism to another, so I am going to deal extensively on the parameters used to measure growth in organisms which includes but not limited to the following
• MASS
• LENGTH, HEIGHT OR WIDTH
• AREA OR VOLUME










1. In most of our studies, mass is measured as wet mass and dry mass. So let us take closer look at them critically

i. Wet mass: wet mass is the mass of the organism under normal condition. Wet mass is not a reliable indication of growth

ii. Dry mass: dry mass is the mass of the organism after all the water in the body has been removed. Most often measuring growth in terms of dry mass is an accurate and reliable method, the organisms most times are killed in the process. It then simply means it is not easy to measure the weight of an organism.
So to study the growth of an organism by measuring the dry mass, we must carry out the measurement or study on a large number of organisms. Therefore growth can then be estimated by removing a given number of organisms at a time and estimating their dry weight

2. SIZE AND LENGTH: size and length can be measured at successive intervals on the same organism. Say the height of a man and length of a snake
3. INCREASE IN NUMBER OF CELLS: increase in numbers of cell is also a proof growth. A popular example of growth in organism is the yeast. The yeast cell is capable of budding or dividing into two, two into four, four into eight etc.
The yeast culture continues to double its numbers as long as none of the cells dies or loses its power of division

REGIONS OF GROWTH IN PLANTS
The regions of fastest growth in plants are the roots and stem apices. In the root, the root tips are where the cells are dividing rapidly. The roots and stem apices of cell division can be divided into the regions of cell division, followed by the region of elongation and the region of the cell maturation.

The region of cell division is also known as the epical meristem. It consist of meristematic cells that is cells capable of active division. The root tips is covered by the root cap.
In the region cell elongation, the cells become enlarged to the maximum size by the stretching of their ways. The cells in the region of maturation attain their permanent size and become specialized to carry out certain functions.

NOTE: THE STEM APICES INCLUDES THE TERMINAL BUDS AND THE LATERAL OR AXILLIARY BUDS.
EPICAL MERISTEMS BRINGS ABOUT THE GROWTH IN LENGTH OR OF THE PLANT. IN THE SHOOT, THEY ALSO GIVES RISE TO BRANCHES, FLOWERS AND LEAVES.
EPICAL MERISTEM BRING ABOUT PRIMARY GROWTH KNOWN AS FIRST GROWTH OF A PLANT.

HOW TO DETERMINE THE AREAS OF GROWTH
Here a young germinating seedling is taken and its radicle is marked with an Indian ink at interval of 2mm. the seedling is then pinned onto a cork and is placed in a bottle containing some water. The apparatus and experiment is then left in dark room for up to 8hrs.

Then, the seedling is taken out and the distances between the successive ink marks are measured. The difference between new and the old intervals i.e. 2mm would give the increase in the length of that interval in 8hrs. From this, the growth of root can be calculated.


FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH
WHAT ARE THE FACTORS THAT AFFECTS GROWTH?
Factors which affects the growth of organisms are grouped into two parts which are
1. EXTERNAL FACTORS AND
2. INTERNAL FACTORS






i. External factors includes the following temperature, light, humidity, PH, accumulation of metabolic product and availability of nutrients
ii. Internal factors includes the hormones.



The external factors that affects the growth of living things are

1. AVAILABILITY OF NUTRIENTS: all living things require nutrients or food and water in order to which are necessary for normal growth and development of the body.

2. HUMIDITY: all living things requires a certain level of humidity to enable them grow effectively any imbalances on humidity, either too low or too hot will definitely affect growth

3. LIGHT: most plants require the presence of sunlight to enable them carry out photosynthesis. In is mainly from this source that they drive energy necessary for growth. Most animals, bacteria and fungi can live in darkness and grow in their habitat

4. TEMPERATURE: All metabolic processes are accelerated at a certain level of temperature. Any imbalance temperature can adversely affect the rate of growth and retard major processes in the body

5. PH: the PH of the fluid in contact with a cell has a gross effect on all its activities. So growth can be hampered at certain level acidity or alkalinity

6. ACCUMULATION OF METABOLLIC PRODUCTS: most metabolic products which accumulates within the body can affect growth. Excessive accumulation is toxic and harmful to the entire body system and can affect growth immensely.


INTERNAL FACTORS
7. HORMONES: hormones are internal factors which are known to affect the rate of growth in plants and animals. Plants hormones which affect the growth of plants are Auxin and gibberellins.


The Auxin promotes or inhibits cell elongation in stems and roots. They also stimulate cell division
Gibberellins promote cell elongation and bring about growth in the stem. They also affect cell division and cell differentiation to a certain extent.


In animals, the hormones are secreted by endocrine glands.
The hormones mainly concerned with growth are secreted by anterior pituitary gland, the thyroid gland and the gonads. Abnormal growth in humans, like Dwarfism or gigantisms is due to errors in the secretion of one these hormones.


You can read more about hormones by going here
And if you find this article useful please help us to sharing as we appreciate your effects in sharing.
Don’t forget to use the comment box

don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS





125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION





popular post of all time

new posts

diseases caused by microorganisms in animals, like bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa

there are so many types of diseases that are caused by microorganisms in animals these diseases are harmful to the well-being of every anima...