SKELETAL SYSTEMS AND SUPPORTING TISSUESIntroduction to the skeletal system in living organisms
Living 0rganisms including plants and animals need tissues and other supporting systems to enable them carry out life’s processes such as movement, respiration, feeding and reproduction.
Here is a typical example of what I am saying, without the various bones and tissues, vertebrates will not be able to stand, respire, move and carry out other life’s processes.
Many multi-cellular organisms, mostly plants and animals needs to support themselves in some way to enable them to maintain their shape. It is also worthy of note that without the skeletal system, we as humans will not be able to stand upright, move about in search of food, carry loads, raise our heads and other parts of the body. As a result of the above stated facts about the skeletal system of living organisms, we have no choice than to devote ample time to study one of the essential parts of living organisms.
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM AND THE SUPPORTING TISSUES IN ANIMALSWhat is skeleton? Why do we have skeleton in our body as living things?
The question will not be complete if we don’t ask how many bines are there in the human body or how can we count the number of bones in the body of humans. So here is a compact definition of the skeletal system
WHAT IS SKELETON?Skeleton is the bony framework of the body which provides support, shape and protection of the soft tissues and organs in animals. Without the skeletal system, animals may not be able to carry out most of life’s processes such as movement, respiration and feeding. One of the most important functions of the skeletal system is that it enables animals to move from place to place.
The skeletal system helps to determine the advancement and development of organisms, for instance, man is able to stand erects/upright because of our sophisticated skeletal system.
THE COMPONENT OF SKELETAL MATERIALS AND THEIR VARIOUS FORMSThis is most confusing in trying to understand and name the various forms of the skeletal system. The issue here is what are materials the creator of living organisms used in making the skeleton? Does the skeleton have components? So join me as I take deeper into the study of skeletal system of living organisms.
There are three forms of skeletal materials found in animals. These are cuticles, bones and cartilages
CUTICLESThe cuticles as a material of the skeletal system, is composed of chitin and a thin of water proof layer of wax. The chitin is non-living substance, therefore animals with this type of skeletal material can only grow by moulting. In this process of growth called moulting, an organism only shed off it old skeletal system and put on a new one. In order words, any organism with this type of skeleton will have put off the old skin.
The cuticle is an exoskeleton which is located externally on the body of the organism. An example of organism with the cuticle as its skeletal material system are mainly arthropods which are insects, crabs, scorpion and prawns
BONESThe bones as part of the skeletal system of organisms, is a tissue and a major component of the vertebral skeleton. It consists of living bone cells called osteocytes, protein fibres called collagen and minerals which is mainly calcium-phosphate and calcium-carbonate.
The minerals, which is the non-living component of the bone is made up of the mass of a bone. As a result, bone is stronger and more rigid tissue than the cartilage.
A bone consists of a hard outer layer-shaft and a spongy or hollow cavity filled with bone marrow. A typical example of organisms which have bones are mainly vertebrates, which are bony fishes, toads, lizards, snakes, birds and mammals.
CARTILAGEThe cartilage, as form of material found in the skeletal system, is a tissue found in the skeleton of complex vertebrates. The cartilage consist of living cells called chondroblasts, carbohydrates and protein fibres. The cartilage is a flexible and tough tissue that has great tensile strength.
The cartilage acts as a shock absorber, cushioning the effects of bone moving against bone during movement. Examples of organisms with cartilages are mainly cartilaginous fishes like wales, sharks and mammals generally.
TYPES OF CARTILAGES
In mammals mostly, there are three types of cartilages. They are
i. Hyaline cartilages
This type of cartilages is found in bronchi and trachea, surfaces of movable joints, the protruding part of the nose which supports it
This types of cartilages is tougher than hyaline cartilages and it is found in the discs between the small bones of the vertebral column
iii. Elastic cartilages
This type of cartilages is found in the external ear called pinnae and the epiglottis
THE VITAMINS AND MINERALS ELEMENTS NECESSARY FOR HEALTHY BONE DEVELOPMENTGenerally it is said that growth is effective and consistent if certain activities which are supposed to propel it is in proportion to it. So these vitamins and mineral elements are
i. Vitamin-D Calciferol, Vitamin-C all form the cement of bone
ii. Mineral elements are calcium/phosphorus/magnesium
The difference between bones and cartilages
BONESI. Bone is made up of living and non-living cells
II. Bones are flexible especially in adults
III. Bone is made up of hard substance
IV. Bone can never be replaced by a cartilage
V. Bone is made up of mineral salts
VI. Bone is stronger, and it is a more rigid tissue