HOW OSMOSIS AND DIFFUSSION HELP IN TRANSPORT SYSTEM


TRANSPORT SYSTEM
Diffusion is important to flowering plants in the following ways:
1. Movement of carbon dioxide through the stomata of the leaves during respiration.
2. There is movement of carbon dioxide through the stomata into the leaves during photosynthesis.At the end of this article, students should be able to:
1. its-properties.html">cytoplasm, cell sap, lymph and blood
6. Describe the mechanisms of transportation in various animals
7. Compare and contrast various mechanisms of transportation
8. Demonstrate expeDefine diffusion
2. Explain the inadequacy of diffusion alone as a transport system for complex organisms
3. Explain the necessity of a transport system in complex organisms
4. Identify source of materials and where they are transported to
5. Discuss the different types of transportation media such as plants and animals refers to the movement of metabolic materials from various parts of the organisms where they are produced or obtained to the parts where they are either used, stored or removed from the body.

DIFFUSION

Diffusion is the process by which molecules or ions of a substance (i.e. gases and liquids) move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration until they are evenly distributed. The substance involved in diffusion may be liquid, gases or solid.

factors affecting or controlling diffusion

The rate or speed of diffusion is controlled by a number of factors which are:
1. State of matter: diffusion varies with the three states of matter. The diffusion of gases is more faster than that of liquids because the gas molecules are freer and therefore faster than liquid molecules.
Molecular size: the nature or the size of the molecules affect diffusion. In general, the smaller the molecules, the faster the rate of diffusion while the larger the molecules the slower the rate of diffusion.


2. Differences in concentration: for diffusion to take place in a medium, there must be differences in the concentration of the substance in two areas. The greater the differences in the concentration of the molecules, the greater the rate of diffusion.
3. Temperature: high temperature increases the speed at which molecles move. Thus, the higher the temperature, the faster the rate of diffusion.

Experiment to demonstrate diffusion in liquids

Take a beaker and fill it with distilled water. Use pipette to deliver small quantity of potassium permanganate solution gently at the bottom of the beaker and leave it to stand for few minutes. The purple colour of the potassium permanganate solution starts to spread outside.




Eventually, the colour spreads evenly throughout the water medium so that the water have the same shade of purple colour.

Experiment to demonstrate diffusion in gases

Take a bottle of ammonia solution, open the bottle and move some distance away from the bottle and wait for some time. The small the air to perceive the odour. The smell of the ammonia gas shows that diffusion of ammonia has taken place.

importance of diffusion to flowering plants

Diffusion is important to flowering plants in the following ways:
1. Movement of carbon dioxide through the stomata of the leaves during respiration.
2. There is movement of carbon dioxide through the stomata into the leaves during photosynthesis.
3. Water vapour leaving the leaves during respiration.
4. Movement of oxygen into the leaves through the stomata during respiration.

Importance of diffusion to animals

Diffusion plays important roles in the life of animals through the following processes
1. There is intake of oxygen or nutrients from mother to foetus (embryo) through placenta.
2. Gaseous exchange in mammals occurs in the lungs during respiration.
3. Gaseous exchange in many cells and organisms e.g. Amoeba takes in oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide by diffusion.
4. There is movement of carbon dioxide from the lung capillaries into the air sac.

diffusion in nature or non-living conditions

Diffusion is also very important in nature or non-living conditions through the following processes:
1. The smell or odour of perfume from a person or a corner of a room.
2. Diffusion of molecules (gases and liquids) in iodine, potassium permanganate and copper sulphate solutions.
3. The spread of insecticide in a room.
4. The spread of smell of gases released from the anus.

OSMOSIS

Osmosis is the flow of water or solvent molecules from a region of dilute or a weaker solutions to a region of concentrated or stronger solution through a selectively or differentially permeable membrane. It should be noted that osmosis is a special form of diffusion.

Conditions necessary for osmosis to take place

There are three major conditions which are necessary for osmosis to take place. These are:
1. Presence of a stronger solution e.g. sugar or salt solution.
2. Presence of a weaker solution e.g. distilled water.
3. Presence of a selectively or differentially permeable membrane.

Living cells as osmometre

In osmosis, there are usually two solutions which are separated by a differentially permeable membrane. The weaker solution is said to be hypotonic while the stronger solution is said to be hypertonic. When both solutions have the same concentration, they are said to be isotonic.
1. Hypotonic; when a cell of a living plant or animals is surrounded by pure water or solution whose solute concentration is lower, water passes into the cells by osmosis. The solution is therefore said to be hypotonic.
2. Isotonic: when the solute concentration of the cell and its surrounding medium are the same, the solution is said to be isotonic.
Hypertonic: when the cell is surrounded by a stronger solution, water will be lost by the cell. The shrinking of the cell is as a result of the surrounding solution being hypertonic. In living cells when water moves across the membrane into a solution of higher concentration, a pressure is created in the cell, this pressure is called osmotic pressure.



3. The solution is said to exert a higher osmotic pressure than the weaker solution. Osmotic pressure is a force that draws in water into the cell. The pressure which a solution can potentially exert is called its osmotic potential.

osmoregulation

is the control of fluctuations in the concentration of substances in cell fluids by special devices such as the contractile vacuole in amoeba.

NEED FOR TRANSPORTATION

The need for transportation in living organisms include:
1. Transport is necessary for every cell of the organism to obtain all the essential materials for its metabolism, e.g. nutrients, oxygen and water.
2. It is also necessary to remove and dispose metabolic wastes, e.g. carbon dioxide, water and urea.
3. In plants, transport is necessary to move mineral salt and water from the roots to the stems and leaves.
4. Transport is also required to move hormones in plants and animals from where they are produced to the area of need.
5. Glucose from the leaves and storage organs are some of the substances being regularly transported in plants.
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TRANSPORT IN LOWER ORGANISMS






HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPIC ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY AND LINK TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR



RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

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