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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

MECHANISM OF TRANSPORTATION IN HIGHER ANIMALS


MECHANISM OF TRANSPORTATION IN HIGHER ANIMALS

In higher animals, like the mammals, the blood is made to circulate round the body by the pumping action of the heart through the blood vessels like the arteries, veins and capillaries.
Mammals exhibit double circulation, blood passes through the heart twice every time it makes on complete movement round the body.

In other words, there are two different circulations. These are pulmonary and systemic circulation.
1. Pulmonary circulation: during the pulmonary circulation, blood is taken from the heart to the lungs through the pulmonary artery and taken back to the heart through the pulmonary vein. The role of this circulation is to oxygenate the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood in the lungs.







2. Systemic circulation: this circulation takes the blood (oxygenated blood) from the heart to all parts of the body through the arteries and sends the blood back to the heart through the veins. The role of the systemic circulation is to transport products of digestion, oxygen, water, hormones and other substances to all parts of the body and collect excretory products like water, urea, carbon dioxide and mineral salts from the cells of the body to organs that will excrete them.

The Contribution of the Mammalian Blood Circulatory System
Exchange of gases: the gases involved in this process are oxygen and carbon dioxide. The blood system has many capillaries in close contact with the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. The thin wall of capillaries and air sacs enable oxygen to be exchanged for carbon dioxide through the process of diffusion. Also, in the tissues, carbon dioxide is exchanged with oxygen. The continuous circulation of blood ensures diffusion of oxygen into the blood and carbon dioxide out of the blood in the lungs.








(a)
(b) Absorption of digested food: the digested food materials are absorbed by the villi of the small intestine. The mesenteric arteries take the food from the small intestine to the liver through the hepatic portal vein. The liver then regulates the amount of food going into the blood. The blood then transports these food materials to capillaries of tissues and organs. With the aid of the lymph, the food substances diffuse into the cells.
(c) Removal of excretory products: the blood is able to collect excretory products like urea, nitrogenous materials, carbon dioxide, and water from the cells by simple diffusion. The waste products are then transported to the various organs like skin, liver, lungs, and kidney from where they are removed from the body.
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MECHANISM OF TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS









1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES

52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT

90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION

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