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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

CULTIVATION OF RICE (ORITZA SATIVA))



RICE production and its major diseases(Oryza sativa)

Rice is another popular cereal crop grown and consumed by nearly half of the world’s population. It is also a member of the grass family (Gramineae). The seed/fruit of rice is a caryopsis, i.e., it has, its epicarp fused with the mesocarp.

Land Preparation of rice:

This is done either manually, using cutlass to clear the bush and remove stump and hoe to make ridges, or mechanically by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.

Varieties of rice or Cultivars:

These include the swamp nee (Toma, BG79 and GFB24) and the upland rice (Agbede). Climatic and Soil Requirement: Rice requires a temperature of over 20C, 75cm- 120cm of rainfall for upland rice and over 250cm for swamp rice, and light fertile soil.

Method of rice Propagation:

Rice is propagated by seed. Rice can be propagated manually or mechanically.
Seed Rate: 65kg/ha at two to three seeds per hole.

Rice Planting Date:

Rice is planted in Southern Nigeria around April and May, and between August and September in the North.
Planting: Rice can be planted by broadcasting, sowing or drilling of the seeds at 2-4cm deep.

Nursery Practices in Rice production:

Swamp rice requires nursery which is done in fertile, water- soaked soil. Seeds are broadcast and germination begins after four to five days and the seedlings are transplanted at between seven to eight weeks of growth to the field. Seeds are sown in nursery around May-June and transplanted in July - August to the field.







Spacing: 25cm - 30cm apart, depending on variety.

Cultural Practices In Rice production

(a) Supplying and thinning: These can be done where applicable.
(b) Fertilizer application: Apply 150kg or three bags of N.P.K fertilizer per hectare at planting by broadcasting.
(c) Weeding: Weeding is done to ensure rapid growth of rice pests and diseases: these should be prevented or controlled by spraying with appropriate chemicals.
(d) Maturity period: Rice matures in four to seven months depending on variety.
(e) Harvesting: Red heads of rice are cut off with knife, sickle or combined harvester.

Processing of rice

(a) Sun drying: This is done immediately after harvesting for three to four days.
(b) Threshing: This is the separation of the grains from the stalk by either beating with stick, treading with feet or by the use of mechanical threshers.
(c) Winnowing: After threshing, the chaff or unwanted dust and remains of stalks are removed by winnowing. This is a fanning operation usually done by throwing the grains in the air to blow away the dust and other residues.
After winnowing, the grains of rice remain enclosed by the husk to form what is called paddy.
(d) Parboiling: This process is used to reduce the breakage of grains during pounding. It also brings some vitamins to the outer layer of the grains and it also reduces the labour required to remove the husks. The paddy rice is heated by putting it into boiling water for about 12-15 hours. The rice swells and the husks are forced apart. The parboiled rice is now sun-dried. The production of rice which is one of the world most consumed food
(e) Hulling: This is the removal of the husks from the grains. The grains are pounded gently to remove the expanded husks. The husks are then separated from the rice by winnowing.
(f) Polishing: In some cases, the paddy rice is threshed by machine, and polished. Polishing involves the use of specially designed machines to remove the husks and other layers covering the grains. The portion removed is known as rice bran which is very rich in protein and vitamins. Consumption of polished rice may cause vitamin deficiency disease called beri-beri due to the removal of the bran rich in protein.

How To Store Rice

Pests of Rice and control methods







1. Birds: These pests feed on the grains, leading to low yield of rice
Control
(i) Employ children to scare the bird
(ii) Use scare crows
(iii) Practice early harvesting
2. Rodents: Cane rat and grasscutter cut the plants and seedlings on the field leading to great loss.
Control
(i) Set or use traps
(ii) Fence the farm round
3. Rice Weevils: this is a store pest, Adults and larvae bore into the grains and reduce them to powder.
Control
Fumigate store with phostox in tablets

Diseases of Rice Of Control Methods

(1) Rice Smut: It is caused by a fungus (Tilleria horrid) which is spread by wind. The grains turn into a mass of black spores
Control
(i) Use resistant varieties
(ii) Use recommended fungicides to spray the crops
(2) Rice blight: It is caused by a fungus (Piricularia oryzae) spread through the soil. Longitudinal red or yellow spots develop on the leaves, leading to poor yield.
Control:
(i) Avoid the use of heavy nitrogen fertilizer:
(ii) Use resistant varieties
(iii) Use clean seeds
Brown leaf spot: It is caused by a fungus. It causes small narrow brown spots which appear on the leaves.
(3)
Control:
(i) Plant resistant varieties
(ii) Uproot and burn infected plants

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE

59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS

80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE

85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES

soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING





118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF