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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

THE KIDNEY



KIDNEY

The Structure of the Kidney:
The kidneys are two reddish - brown, bean-shaped structures that lie asymmetrically on the posterior dorsal body wall of the lumber-upper region of the abdomen below the adrenal gland. At the concave edge is a depression called the helium. Arising from the helium is a small tube called the ureter.
The helium also serves as the point of entry of the renal artery and leaving of the renal vein. The ureter connects the kidney to the urinary bladder and from the bladder to the urethra. The urethra opens through the penis in male and separately in female as the urinary tract.

The kidney is made up of two distinct regions:

the outer cortex and inner medulla. This contains thousands of urinary tubules. Each malpighian tubule consists of malpighian body situated in the cortex and convoluted tube.
Each malpighian body, consists of a cup-like chamber, the Bowman’s capsule,@misc{ wiki:xxx,
author = "{Wikipedia contributors}",
title = "Bowman's capsule --- {Wikipedia}{,} The Free Encyclopedia",
year = "2019",
url = "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bowman%27s_capsule&oldid=887973087",
note = "[Online; accessed 24-May-2019]"
} into which a knot of blood capillaries, the glomerus, fit. Beyond the malpighian body, each tubule makes a U-shaped loop into the medulla, re-enters into the cortex and bends again into the medulla where its course is completed.
The U-shaped loop is the Henle’s loop. The tubule transverses both regions and opens at the tips (papillae) of triangular-shaped masses called pyramids, which open into the pelvis.







FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEY

The functions of the kidney include
(1) Excretion: The kidney helps to remove unwanted nitrogenous wastes like urea, ammonium compound, water and salts from the body
(2) Detoxification: The kidney also helps to eliminate poisonous substances from the body, e.g toxins, drugs and alcohol
(3) Removal of excess glucose: The kidney also aids the removal of excess glucose from the body
(4) Maintenance of acid/base balance: The kidney helps to maintain the blood pH and osmotic pressure. Normal urine is slightly acidic.
(5) Osmo-regulation of the body: The kidney also functions in the osmo-regulation of the body. i.e keeps the concentration of the blood plasma and conditions of the body cells fairly constant.
(6) Conservation: The key aids the conservation of some useful materials by re-absorbing them from the glomerula filtrate which is the first step in urine formation. Materials conserved include water, glucose, sodium ions, chlorine ions and Vitamin C.

kidney overview


The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs in the renal system. They help the body pass waste as urine. They also help filter blood before sending it back to the heart.

The kidneys perform many crucial functions, including:

maintaining overall fluid balance
regulating and filtering minerals from blood
filtering waste materials from food, medications, and toxic substances
creating hormones that help produce red blood cells, promote bone health, and regulate blood pressure

Nephrons


Nephrons are the most important part of each kidney. They take in blood, metabolize nutrients, and help pass out waste products from filtered blood. Each kidney has about 1 million nephrons. Each has its own internal set of structures.
Renal corpuscle

After blood enters a nephron, it goes into the renal corpuscle, also called a Malpighian body. The renal corpuscle contains two additional structures:

The glomerulus

. This is a cluster of capillaries that absorb protein from blood traveling through the renal corpuscle.
The Bowman capsule. The remaining fluid, called capsular urine, passes through the Bowman capsule into the renal tubules.

Renal tubules


The renal tubules are a series of tubes that begin after the Bowman capsule and end at collecting ducts.
@misc{ wiki:xxx,
author = "{Wikipedia contributors}",
title = "Bowman's capsule --- {Wikipedia}{,} The Free Encyclopedia",
year = "2019",
url = "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bowman%27s_capsule&oldid=887973087",
note = "[Online; accessed 24-May-2019]"
}
Each tubule has several parts:

Proximal convoluted tubule. This section absorbs water, sodium, and glucose back into the blood.
Loop of Henle. This section further absorbs potassium, chloride, and sodium into the blood.
Distal convoluted tubule. This section absorbs more sodium into the blood and takes in potassium and acid.

By the time fluid reaches the end of the tubule, it’s diluted and filled with urea. Urea is byproduct of protein metabolism that’s released in urine.







Renal cortex


The renal cortex is the outer part of the kidney. It contains the glomerulus and convoluted tubules.

The renal cortex is surrounded on its outer edges by the renal capsule, a layer of fatty tissue. Together, the renal cortex and capsule house and protect the inner structures of the kidney.


Renal medulla


The renal medulla is the smooth, inner tissue of the kidney. It contains the loop of Henle as well as renal pyramids.
Renal pyramids

Renal pyramids are small structures that contain strings of nephrons and tubules. These tubules transport fluid into the kidney. This fluid then moves away from the nephrons toward the inner structures that collect and transport urine out of the kidney.


Collecting ducts


There’s a collecting duct at the end of each nephron in the renal medulla. This is where filtered fluids exit the nephrons.

Once in the collecting duct, the fluid moves on to its final stops in the renal pelvis.


Renal pelvis


The renal pelvis is a funnel-shaped space in the innermost part of the kidney. It functions as a pathway for fluid on its way to the bladder

Calyces


The first part of the renal pelvis contains the calyces. These are small cup-shaped spaces that collect fluid before it moves into the bladder. This is also where extra fluid and waste become urine.
Hilum

The hilum is a small opening located on the inner edge of the kidney, where it curves inward to create its distinct beanlike shape. The renal pelvis passes through it, as well as the:

Renal artery. This brings oxygenated blood from the heart to the kidney for filtration.
Renal vein. This carries filtered blood from the kidneys back to the heart.

Ureter

The ureter is a tube of muscle that pushes urine into the bladder, where it collects and exits the body.



Kidney diagram


Use this interactive 3-D diagram to explore the kidney.


Kidney conditions


Because of all of the vital functions the kidneys perform and the toxins they encounter, the kidneys are susceptible to various problems.

Some of these conditions include:

chronic kidney disease
kidney failure
kidney stones
glomerulonephritis
acute nephritis
polycystic kidney disease
urinary tract infections
caliectasis
acidosis
uremia
hydronephrosis
pyelonephritis
kidney cysts
nephrotic syndrome
azotemia

Learn more about some of the most common kidney diseases.
Symptoms of a kidney problem

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION





42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION