Battery Cage System of poultry management


The Battery Cage System

In the cage system, the birds are housed in individual cages, each accommodating a limited number of birds, mostly one or two. This individual cage compartment is the basic component unit of the cage system and it is essentially a laying nest with a sloping floor, feed and water troughs.
It is constructed to permit ventilation from all skies. Usually the sides, top and floor are constructed with heavy galvanized iron.
The cages vary in circle degree of automation. On the one hand, all operations may have to be performed manually, while at the other extreme, practically all the various operations, including, manure removal may be automated.
The poultry droppings fall into a pit (a shallow duct) and are cleaned off with a mechanical scrapper. Under skilled management, the battery system of housing has proved to be the best in regard to egg production, efficiency of food conversion and reduction in mortality.

ADVANTAGES OF THE BATTER CAGE SYSTEM

1. This system is used as a labour-saving device.
2. There is less trouble from parasitic diseases such as worms and coccidiosis because the birds do not come in contact with their dropping
3. There is a drop in feed consumption of about 2.5kg per bird during laying period. Less feed is needed because the birds have less exercise and a more constant temperature
4. It saves space as the batteries are set up in tiers
5. It provides the best opportunity for close individual supervision so that the capabilities and productiveness of each bird can be ascertained
6. Selection is made easier during culling. The birds are directly within view and reach
7. The poultry house is less noisy, and high eggs and body weights are attained by the birds
8. There are fewer eggs with dirty shells





DISADVANTAGES OF THE BATTER CAGE SYSTEM

1. The battery equipment is more expensive and deteriorates quickly
2. The battery equipment is suitable for only one purpose
3. There is more possibility for technical faults/problems because of automation; higher maintenance cost are encountered.
4. The birds may be bored and battery or cage fatigue can develop
5. Complete feeds for cage layers are expensive
6. More eggs are cracked, especially very thin shelled eggs

REASONS FOR PROVIDING SUITABLE HOUSING FOR LIVESTOCK

(i) To protect animals from rain/cold weather conditions
(ii) To protect animals from the direct rays of sunlight
(iii) To restrict the movement of the animals
(iv) To protect the flock from theft
(v) To facilitate management through grouping of livestock according to age and purpose
(vi) To protect the young ones from danger/predator
(vii) To prevent indiscriminate mating
(viii) To ensure maximum utilization of feed and water
(ix) To facilitate close observation/monitoring/veterinary care
(x) To prevent damage of cultivated crops
(xi) To prevent damage of cultivated crops
(xii) To prevent them from contracting diseases from outside
(xiii) To prevent them from pest infestation
(xiv) To facilitate accurate record keeping





CHARACTERISTICS FEATURES OF A GOOD LAYER

(i) A good layer has a broad and square head
(ii) It has a short beak
(iii) It has a bright and bulging eyes
(iv) It possesses a smooth and lean face
(v) It has a large but thin comb
(vi) It has bright red comb and wattles
(vii) It has soft and pliable abdomen
(viii) There is absence of cannibalistic tendencies or aggressiveness
(ix) It has a broad flexible pelvic bones
(x) It possesses a wide, moist cloaca
(xi) It has pale coloured shanks
(xii) There is absence of broodiness
(xiii) It posseses a glossy plumage
(xiv) It must have a short clutch



HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION





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