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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given per...

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COTTON CULTIVATION (GOSSIPIUM SPP)


COTTON (GOSSYPIUM SPP)

Cotton is a fibre crop and belongs to the plant family called Malvaceae. It produces cotton lint, a white fibre used in textile industries.

Land Preparation for cotton planting:

The 1nd is cleared with cutlass or mechanically ploughed and harrowed to make it soft for planting of cotton seeds.

Varieties of cotton or Cultivars

Gossypium hirsitum, Gosspium vitifolium, Ishan type, samaru, Gosspium peruvianum (meko cotton).

Climatic and soil requirement for the planting of cotton:

Cotton requires a temperature of 250C - 35°C, rainfall of 65cm - 125cm per annum, abundant sunlight and a very rich, deep, loamy or clay-loamy soil.

Method of Propagation of cotton:

By seeds.

Planting Date for cotton:

Cotton is planted in June and July in Northern Nigeria.
Seed rate: 15-20kg/ha.
Planting: Four to five seeds are sown per stand. These are later thinned to two seedlings per stand at 3cm deep.







Cultural Practices in cotton production

(i) Weeding: This is done at regular intervals
(ii) Fertilizer Application: Apply 125kg of super phosphate fertilizer at sowing time
(iii) Mulching: This prevents evaporation and controls erosion.

Maturity period of cotton cultivation:

Cotton matures within five to eight months after planting.

Harvesting methods for cotton

:
Matured fruits (bolls) are handpicked and sun-dried

How to process coton

Processing: Cotton for export is taken to a cotton ginnery after being dried. The seeds are then separated from the line which is made into bales of I 80 kg either hand or by bailing machines.

The seeds also packed for export.

Storage of cotton:

Cotton is placed in sack and kept in dry place.

Pests of Cotton and control methods

(1) Cotton stainer (Dysdercus spp): It feeds on the contents of the boll and also transmits bacterial and fungal diseases. They stain the lints.
Control: By handpicking the insects and regular spraying with insecticides.
(2) Boll worms: The caterpillars (larvae) eat their way into the boll and spoil the lint.
Control:
(i) This is done by handpicking.
(ii) Destruction of infected plants.


Diseases of cotton and control method

(1) Bacteria blight: It is caused by a bacterium. Symptoms include angular spots which appear on the leaves and branches
Control:
(i) It is used by dressing
(ii) Destroy and burn infected plants
(iii) Grow resistant varieties

(2) Leaf curl: It is caused by a virus transmitted by an insect. Affected leaves become twisted, mottled, vein clearing and curl at the margin.
Control:
(i) Plant resistant varieties
(ii) Destroy infected plants by burning


(3) Damping off: It is caused by a fungus which is spread through the soil. Cells of seedling become water logged, resulting in the death of the plants.
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER






79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES