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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given per...

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COW-PEA (VEGNA UNGUICULATA)


COWPEA (Vigna unguilata)

The cowpea is a member of the pulses or legumes. It belongs to the family called Leguminosae. It is rich in proteins and is commonly fed on by man. The fruit of cowpea is called pod.

Land Preparation for the planting of cowpea

The land is cleared after which the thrash is packed. Weed-row burning can also be done. The land preparation is continued with stumping, ploughing, harrowing and ridging done in sequence.

Varieties of cowpea or Cultivars

Erect type, creeping type, Ife brown, Ife Bimpe etc.

Climatic and Soil Requirement for cowpea :

Cowpea requires a temperature of 27°C - 3 5°C, rainfall of 60cm - 125cm per annum, abundant sunshine and a rich sandy loamy soil.

Method of propagation of cowpea:

By seeds. Planting date: Early and late planting are in April and August respectively. In the South, early planting is April while late planting is August and September. In the North, late planting is July and August. Seed rate: 20-25 kg/ha.
Spacing: It depends on variety. For example, spacing for the spreading type is 25 x 90cm while the erect type is 30 x 75 cm.






Planting: There should be seed dressing before planting. Planting can either be manual or mechanized. Seeds are planted directly on the field. Planting depth of 2-4 cm is allowed. Planting rate is two to three seeds in a hole, while germination occurs between three to five days after planting.

Cultural Practices in cowpea cultivation

(i) Thinning: This can be done when the plants are about two to five weeks of age.
(ii) Weeding: Weeding can be done manually on a small scale while herbicides can be applied on commercial scale. Weeding is usually carried out once or twice before the plant spreads fully.
(iii) Fertilizer application: Apply phosphatic fertilizer for nodulation and pod formation. Apply the fertilizer at land preparation or at planting. Rate of application should be 250kg or five bags per hectare.
(iv)

Maturity period or stages of cowpea :

Cowpea matures between three to four months after planting.

Harvesting method of cowpea:

Brown, mature or ripe pods c harvested by hand-picking. Early varieties are harvested three months after planting while late maturing varieties are harvested after four months. Harvest mature dry pods before shattering.

Processing method in cowpea production :

Harvested pods are dried under the sun. Shelling is done by beating the dry pods with sticks or by pounding lightly in a mortar on a small scale. Shellers are used on a large scale. Winnowing is carried out whereby broken shells or pods are removed from the beans. Extraneous matter like stones are later removed.
(i) Ensure proper drying before storage
(ii) Shelled beans are treated with insecticides before storage to prevent weevil’s attack.
(iii) Shelled seeds are stored in bags or rhombus on a small scale.
(iv) Storage is done in silos on a large scale.
(v) Hermatic storage can also be done in airtight containers.

How to Store cowpea :

The seeds are stored in jute bags.

Pests of Cowpea and their control methods

(1) Pod borers: Adults pierce or bore holes into fruits and stems and may inject toxic saliva.
Control: Spray with insecticide
(2) Bean beetle (Callosobruchus spp): This is a field-to-store pest. Adults and nymphs bore holes into seed, feed on them and turn them to powder, thereby reducing the quality and market value.
Control:
(i) Early harvesting of pods
(ii) Fumigation of containers or store with fumigant like phostoxin tablets

(3) Leaf Hoppers: They eat up the leaves, thereby causing low yield of crops.
Control: Spray plants with insecticides

Diseases of Cowpea and their control methods

(1) Cowpea mosaic disease: It is a viral disease which is transmitted by aphid or thrip. It causes stunting, reduces pod size and cause premature dropping of flowers.
Control:
(i) Use resistant varieties
(ii) Control insect vector by spraying with pesticides
(iii) Remove and burn infected plants

(2) Bacterial blight: It is caused by a bacterium which is spread by water. Infected leaves produce water-soaked spots which later enlarge and turn brown
Control:
(i) Use resistant varieties
(ii) Use clean seeds when planting

(3) Nematode disease: It is caused by nematode transmitted through soil. It cause twisting, rolling of roots.
Control:
(i) Use resistant varieties
(ii) Practice good cultural operations
(iii) Treat soil with nematicide

(4) Damping-off disease: This disease is caused by a fungus (Phytophthora spp). It is transmitted through the hyphae in the soil. It results in the destruction of seedlings in the soil
Control:
(i) Dress seeds with fungicides
(ii) Practice crop rotation
(iii) Grow resistant varieties
(iv) Remove infected plants

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER






79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES