fabioclass

CULTIVATION OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA)



GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogea)

Groundnut is a dual-purpose crop. It can be cultivated as an oil crop as well as a protein or a pulse or leguminous crop. Although it is a leguminous crop, it is mainly grown for its oil.
The seed called nut contains about 40 - 55% oil, 30% protein and 18% carbohydrate. Industrial products of groundnut include:
(i) Groundnut cake.
(ii) Groundnut oil.
(iii) Groundnut butter.

Land Preparation for the planting of groundnut

The land is cleared, stumping i done and land can also be prepared mechanically by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.

Varieties/Cultivars of groundnut

Bunch or erect type, creping type, Kano local, Kano 50 and castle cary.

Climatic requirement for the cultivation of groundnut

Groundnut requires a temperature of 25C – 30C, rainfall of 70 – 100cm per annum.




Maturity Period for groundnut

: It matures between four to six months.

process of Harvesting groundnut

: Harvesting is done when the lower leaves turn brown and begins to fall. Harvesting is done by using native hoes or by pulling the plants up by hand. The nuts are then picked from the plant root and stem. Harvest 102 – 150 days after planting, depending on the variety. Harvesting can be done manually or mechanically by uprooting the plant and allowing them to dry for easy removal of pods.

Processing and storage of groundnut

: Harvested nuts are dried properly. The seeds are removed from the shells by pounding them slightly in mortars or by beating them with sticks. Small shelling or decorticating machine can also be used to remove the seeds from the pod.
Storage: Dried groundnuts can be stored in clean rhumbus or silos. The unshelled pods are stored in sacks while the shelled nuts are stored in bags. The shelled nuts are treated with insecticides before storage.

Pests of Groundnut and control methods

(1) Rodents: These include rats which dig up and eat sown seeds.
Control: Fencing and trapping should be done.
(2) Groundnut Beetle: This sacks the nuts during storage.
Control: Fumigation with phostoxin tablets should be done. Other pests include aphids. caterpillar and grasshopper, bruchid or weevil or floor beetle.

Diseases of groundnut and control methods

(1) Groundnut rosette disease: It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by aphid and other piercing and sucking insects.
Symptoms: Symptoms include green leaves which become yellow with mosaic form of mottling. The plant becomes stunted and finally withers and dies.
Control: (i) Plant healthy seeds. (ii) Uproot and burn infected plants. (iii) Spray to kill the vector (aphids) with insecticide.

(2) Tikka Disease: It is caused by a fungus (Cercospora personata), which can be spread by air or wind.




Symptoms: Symptoms include yellowing of leaves with dark brown spots on the under surface. Falling of the leaves soon will set in.
Control:
(i) Early planting. (ii) Practise crop rotation. (iii) Use resistant varieties. (iv) Maintain farm sanitation.
(3) Aspergillosis: It is caused by a fungus (Aspertilles Havus) which makes the seed become mouldy. Spores are transmitted through the soil. Pods become toxic because of the presence of aflatoxins which are poisonous. The hypocotyl of the geminating seeds will die.
Control: (i) Plant mould- free seeds.
(ii) Treat seeds with fungicides.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




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