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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given per...

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CULTIVATION OF OIL PALM (ELEASIS GUINEENSIS)


OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis

The oil palm belongs to the plant family called palmea or palm family. On commercial basis, both the oil and the kernel are important. The oil is obtained from the mesocarp and the kernel from the endocarp. The fruit is called a drupe. Oil palm is an oil crop.

Land preparation for oil palm cultivationVarieties /Cultivars of oil palm

: Dura, pisifera and Tenera








(i) Dura: This variety has a thin mesocarp, thick endocarp (shell) with a large kernel. It is genetically homozygous and represented by DD.
(ii) Pisifera: This variety has a thick mesocarp (i.e. it contains very little oil content), absence of endocarp (no shell) with small kernel. It is genetically homozygous recessive for shell. It is represented by DD.
(iii) Tenera: This variety has a thick mesocarp, thin endocarp with moderate sized kernel. It is a cross between Dura and pisifera. It is capable of producing by DD. Heterozygous and it is represented by DD.
Climatic and soil requirements: Oil palm requires a temperature of 18 – 27, rainfall of 150cm – 200cm per annum, a deep loamy soil, rich in organic matter, and a slightly acidic soil of pH4.5 – 6.

Method of oil palm Propagation :

By seeds

Planting Dates :

(i) Pre-nursery: August – October (ii) Nursery: 9 months later (iii) Field: March – May (a year after)
Seed rate: 120 – 150 seeds/ha







process of Germination of oil palm seeds :

Seeds are soaked in water for seven days, the water being changed daily. After seven days, the seeds are placed in the shade for 24hours to dry before being bagged (500 per bag) in polythene bags. They are then sent to the germinator which has a temperature of 29oc (102oF) for 80days. Soaking then begins again changed daily. The seeds are then dried under shade for two hours before being sent to the cooling house. After about weeks, germination begins. This method produces a germination 0f 85 – 90%.

Pre-nursery Operations for oil palm

(i) Seed boxes or trays are filled with top soil, rich hi humus
(ii) The seeds are sown at a spacing of 7.0cm by 7.0cm.
(iii) Shades are provided
(iv) Watering is done in the morning and evening
(v) Mulching should be done
(vi) Pre-nursery lasts for hi iv months before they are transferred to the nursery.

Nursery Operations for oil palm production

(i) It requires a level, well-drained, loamy soil.
(ii) The nursery is ploughed bad harrowed or polythene bags are used
(iii) Planting is done early April during which the seedlings are removed with a ball of earth
(iv) Spacing of 60cm by 60cm is required.
(v) Watering, weeding and mulching are done.

techniques for Transplanting oil palm seedling
(i) It is done after one year of seedlings in the nursery (April – May)
(ii) It is done with a ball of earth on the roots
(iii) A spacing of 9m by 9m in triangular form is required in a hole of 4.5cm deep on the field.
(iv) The roots are trimmed to encourage the development of new ones

Cultural Practices for oil palm cultivation

(1) Weeding: This should be done regularly, using cutlass or herbicides, e.g., Gramoxone.
(ii) Fertilizer Application: Apply N.P.K. 15:15:15 fertilizer at the rate of 800kg/ha.
(iii) Cover Crops: This should be evaporation and to add nutrients.
(iv) Pruning: This should be done regularly.

Maturity Period for oil palm

This is between three to seven years.


Harvesting of oil palm

: Mature bunches art. Harvested when the fruits are red or dark red in colour. The bunch is harvested will a cutlass or harvesting knife.

Oil palm Processing methods

Oil palm fruit can be processed in two ways:
(i) Traditional method: The fruits. are boiled after which they are pounded in, a mortar. The fibres and nuts are removed and the oil is separated from the residue by floatation, after mixing with water. The crude liquid is reboiled and the oil is carefully separated. The oil is later reheated to eliminate any trace of water.
(ii) Modern method: This involves. The extraction of oil with machines. The boiled fruits are macerated to separate the oil from the fiber and the kernel. Hand- screw press or the hand-hydraulic press is used to press the mixture. The oil is cleansed by allowing the mixture to settle and then boiled after the sludge and water have been removed. The oil is reheated to remove arty traces if water storage. The palm oil is stored in aluminum or large plastic containers, drum, tankers tins or bottles while the kernels, are cracked, dried and stored either for local consumption or for export.

Grades of Palm oil

Palm oil is graded into three major categories based on the quantity of free fatty acids (FFA) present in the oil. The three major grades are:
(i) Soft oil - It has low free fatty acid (FFA)
(ii) Hard oil - It has high free fatty acid (FFA)
(iii) Special oil – It has very low free fatty acid (FFA)








Pests of Oil Palm and control methods

(i) Rodents: Rodents like rats, squirrel. Bush rats dig up and eat the seeds in the pre- nursery stage.
Control: Use wire mesh to surround the nursery beds.


Diseases of Oil Palm and control methods

1. Blast Disease:
It is caused by a fungus which is spread within the soil. Symptoms: include yellow-coloured leaves with some brown patches cm the leaves of seedling in nursery. It may lead to the death of the seedlings.
Control:
(i) Regular watering and mulching of the Nursery beds.
(ii) Spray at regular intervals with captan.

(2) Anthracnose: It is also caused by a fungus.
Symptoms: of the disease include black I brown Patches on the surfaces of leaves in pre-nursery.
Control:
(i) Ensure adequate spacing within the pre-nursery.
(ii) Spray with captan or Perenox.

(3) Freckle disease: It is caused by a fungus which can be spread by wind or air. It may develop in pre-nursery and later spread to nursery and the field, when it is controlled.
Affected plants develop brown spots on the leaves

Control
(i) Remove infected plant
(ii) Spray with captan
(1) Galadima disease: It is caused by a bacterium which is spread within the soil.
Symptoms include rapid wilting and death of the entire plant.
Control:
(i) Avoid infested soil
(ii) Practice crop rotation, especially in pre-nursery and nursery stages.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER







80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION