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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given per...

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CULTIVATION OF PEPPER (CASPICUM SPP)



PEPPER (Capsicum spp)

Pepper is a spice crop which adds flavours to stew and soup. It can be used when green or red. It is rich in vitamins and minerals. It belongs to the plant family, Solanaceae.history of pepper production, cultural practices, pest management, harvesting, handling and marketing of pepper.
Land Preparation: The bush is cleared and ridges or heaps are made with hoe. The land can also be prepared mechanically by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.

Varieties/Cultivars of pepper

All peppers are members of the Solanacea family, which also includes tomato, tobacco, eggplant and Irish potato. There has been much debate over the years as to how many species of Capsicum truly exist.
(i) Sweet pepper (Capsicum annum).
(ii) Chilli pepper.
(iii) Bird’s eye pepper (Capsicum frutescens).






Climatic and soil requirements for pepper:
Pepper requires a temperature of 15°C- 27°C, rainfall of 100cm -150cm per annum and a rich, well- drained loamy soil.
Peppers can be produced on a wide variety of soil types. They grow best, however, in deep, medium textured sandy loam or loamy, fertile, well-drained soils. Avoid sites that tend to stay wet. Also, rotate away from fields that have had solanaceous crops within the past 3 or 4 years.
In field production, plants depend on the soil for (1) physical support and anchorage, (2) nutrients and (3) water. The degree to which the soil adequately provides these three factors depends upon topography, soil type, soil structure and soil management.

Method of propagation of pepper: This is by seeds.
Planting dates of pepper:
Nursery: February – March (ii)Transplanting (Field) April/May Seeding pepper directly into the field is not recommended due to the high cost of hybrid seed and the specific conditions required for adequate germination. Most pepper is transplanted to the field from green nursery beds. Pepper transplants should be hardened off before transplanting in the field


Spacing:
plant population per acre depends upon plant growth habit (compact, medium, spreading), plant size (small, medium, large) at maturity, vigor of specific cultivars, climate, soil moisture, nutrient availability, management system and soil productivity. Adequate populations for the many different types and cultivars of peppers range from approximately 7,500 to 14,500 plants per acre.
Nursery: 5cm by 5cm
Field: 60cm by 60cm

Nursery Practices for pepper production
(i) Seeds are drilled in seed boxes trays containing top soil.
(ii) Shade is provided. (iii) Watering is done every and evening. (iv) Weeding is done regularly.
Planting: This is done when plant is lOcm-l5cm tall. Transplanting of pepper is done with ball of earth on the root to the field around April and May.

Pepper production requires highly intensive management, production and marketing skills, and a significant investment
Cultural Practices in pepper production
(i) Weeding: This is done regularly
(ii) Mulching: This should be done to conserve moisture in the soil
(iii) Fertilizer application: Apply 100kg/ha of Ammonium sulphate by ring method

Maturity period of pepper
It matures between two and three months
Harvesting: Pepper (ripe or unripe) can be harvested with hand or with knife.
Processing and storage of pepper; ripe fruits of pepper can be dried or cured day and night for 6 – 14 days. Dried fruits are stored in sacks and kept in warm places.

Pests of pepper
(i) Crickets and grasshoppers attack plants and eat up the leaves.
Control: Spray with insecticides. Diseases of pepper
(1) Leaf spot: It is caused by a fungus.
Symptoms: Symptoms include spotting of leaves of young plants in nursery, resulting in decay of flowers and leaves.
Control: Spray with insecticides
(2) Damping off: It is a fungal disease spread by water. The leaves wither gradually and dry off.
Control:
(i) Seeds should not be sown very close to each other
(ii) Spray with copper fungicides

(1) Leaf Curl: It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by an insect.







Symptoms
Symptoms include wrinkling of the leaves and stunted growth
Control:
(i) Spray with insecticide to kill vector
(ii) Uproot and burn infected plant
(iii) Practice crop rotation

Bacterial spot is the most common and often the most serious disease affecting peppers in Georgia. This disease is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Bacterial spot lesions can be observed on leaves stems and fruit, and occurs on all stages of plant growth. Leaf lesions usually begin as small, water-soaked lesions that gradually become necrotic and brown in the center

here are some of our important topic
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES





147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE