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CULTIVATION OF PLANTAIN AND BANANA (MUSA SPP)


BANANA/PLANTING (Musa spp)

Land Preparation: Clearing of the land which is followed by stumping and making of ridges or heaps. It can also be done mechanically through ploughing, harrowing and ridging.

Varieties/Cultivars of banana and planting

Gross Michel; Cavendish (dwarf); red banana; canary banana.

Climatic and soil requirements for plantain/banana

Banana/plantain plant requires a temperature of 21oC- 25°C, rainfall of l5Ocm - 200cm per annum and a well- drained, rich, loamy soil.

Planting Materials for banana/plantain

: These are corm (or bits), peeper suckers, sword sucker and maiden sucker.


Propagation/planting Date

: Banana is propagated by vegetative means any time from April to September. Dig a hole and plant the sucker with ball of earth. The hole should be 60cm x 60cm. The holes are filled with soil mixed with organic matter.
Spacing: 4m x 4m

Cultural Practices for the cultivation of banana/plantain

(i) Weeding: This should be done regularly to prevent competition with crops for nutrients.
(ii) Mulching: This should be done to prevent evaporation.
(iii) Fertilizer Application: Apply Muriate of potash 25kg/ha by ring method at regular intervals.
(iv) Pruning: This should be done to avoid over-population per stand.
(v) Pests and other insects should be controlled.



Maturity period for banana

It matures between 12-18 months, depending on the variety.

Harvesting time of banana

A bunch of banana is harvested when the fruit is severed from the bunch stalk by using cutlass. At times, the pseudo-stem is cut until the tree falls.

Processing/storage of bananaPests of Banana and control methods

(i)

Stem Borer:

the Larvae of some insects bore into and destroy the tissue of the plant.
Control:
(i) Apply dieldrin dust or furadan
(ii)

Nematode:

It makes the root of banana to grow galls or knots, leading to poor growth
Control: Use appropriate nematicide
(iii)

Rats and Monkeys:

these eat up the matured or ripe fruits
Control:
(i) Use poison baits
(ii) Set traps
(iii) Harvest ripe fruit early

Diseases of Banana and control methods

Panama disease:It is caused by fungus (Fusarium oxysperum) which is spread through the soil. Symptoms include collapsing of the petiole and withering of the leaves.
Control:
(i) Use resistant varieties.
(ii) Spray with fungicide.


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(2)

Leaf spot (or Sigatoka) disease:

It caused by a fungus (Cercospora mycosi haerella) which is transmitted by air wind. Symptoms: include yellow or brown chiorotic spots which later unite to form or bind lateral to parallel vein.
Control: Spray with fungicide, e.g. Bordeaux mixture.
(iii) Bunchy top disease: It is caused by a virus transmitted by an insect. Symptoms include stunted plant with crowded leaves having curled edges.
Control:
(i) Ensure field sanitation
(ii) Bury or burn infected plants.
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION






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