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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given per...

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CULTIVATION OF RUBBER (HEVEA BRAZILIENSIS)



RUBBER TREE (Hevea braziliensis)

Rubber is the only popular latex crop which produces white sticky liquid used in plastic industries. It belongs to the plant family, euphorbiaceae.

Land preparation for the cultivation of Rubber

: The land is cleared, stumping is done and the land may be levelled or it can also be done by ploughing and harrowing.

Varieties/Cultivars of Rubber tree

: PB86, Dough garden, BD5, Harbel 1, PB5/5 1.

Climatic and Soil Requirements for Rubber cultivation

: Rubber requires a temperature of 24°C to 29°C, rainfall of 180cm - 300cm per annum, bright sunshine and a deep loamy soil which is rich in humus and slightly acidic. Method of propagation: By seeds and budded seedlings (vegetative propagation).







Planting dates for Rubber tree

Pre-nursery: August - October: Nursery: nine months later.
Budding: February - April.

Cultural Practices for rubber planting

(1) Weeding: This should be done regularly.
(ii) Mulching: This should also be done, especially at the early stage of transplanting.
(iii) Pruning: This ensures better aeration and good cultural operations within the farm.
(iv) Planting of cover crops: This prevents erosion, evaporation and adds nutrients to the soil.

Maturity period for rubber tapping

It takes three to six years after planting.
Harvesting: The process of harvesting rubber i.e. collection of the latex is called tapping. Diagonal cut is made 60cm above the ground on the bark of the tree with a tapping knife. The latex is collected with a cup below. Tapping is done early in the morning between seven to 10a.m and for every two to three days. The latex from all the cups are collected together from all the rubber trees in the evening.







Tools and materials required for tapping rubber

They are tapping knife, spout, collecting cup, cup hanger, collecting buckets, churns, collecting tanks, anti-coagulants, e.g., sodium Sulphate or ammonia.

Processing of Rubber latex:

The latex is collected in processing tank. A little water is added to dilute it. Formic or acetic acid is added to effect the coagulation of the latex. Then the coagulated latex is cut into pieces; washed and put into rolling machine to get thin rubber sheets. The rubber sheets are then washed and treated with paranitrophenol solution to prevent mould. Growth. The rubber sheets are dried in a smoke house for further drying so the ribbed smoke sheet (R.S.S) rubber is produced. Talcum powder is applied t prevent the rubber sheets from sticking together and for proper storage.
The rubber sheets produced are. either purchased and sent to the port for export, or to the factories (e.g. tyre, plastic industries) where further processing into foams, shoes, pillows, buckets, mattresses, spoons, carpets, cups, plates, etc. are carried out.

Pests of Rubber and control method

1. Mealy bugs: these insects are vectors of diseases.
Control: spray with insecticides

Diseases of rubber and control method

(1) tapping panel disease:
(2) It is caused by a fungus. It attacks the tapping panel, especially during humid weather condition.
Control: Disinfect tapping knife








2. White and red rot diseases:
They are cause by fungi. Affected trees produce yellow leaves which rapidly drop and the whole plant may die.
Control: (i) weed regularly (ii) diseased trees should be felled and destroyed (iii) Spray the trees with copper fungicides

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION