SOME CULTURAL PRACTICES IN CROP PRODUCTIONShading
(i) Art of erecting cover above seedlings.
(ii) Protects seedlings from harsh external environmental conditions e.g. sun and rain drops. Reduces evapo-transpiration. Shades are progressively removed until they are finally dispensed with.grasses and tarpaulins.
Supplying / filling-in(i) The replacement of seeds that fail to germinate or seedling that dies. read more about seed germination here
(ii) It is earned out to maintain desired plant population.
(iii) Usually done by transplanting new seedlings or planting new seeds in the site for the ungerminated seed.
(iv) It is usually manually done.
Nursery(i) Nursery can be practiced in polypots, seed boxes and bed.
(ii) Seeds which are smaller and delicate or plants which are delicate while young require pre-planting sites known as nurseries (types of nurseries) are meant to have seedlings become adjusted to the harsh environment
(iv) Nursery sites should have good top soil with good drainage
(v) Seeds are mostly broadcast or drilled and lightly covered with soil.
(vi) Watering is done with a fine rose watering can
(i) All seed boxes, beds, drills must be properly labeled
(ii) Nurseries are usually shaded
(iii) Usually enclosed or fenced
Weeding, pest and disease control and application of fertilizer are usually practiced in the nursery
Seed rate:Seed rate refers to the quantity of seeds required to plant one hectare of land. Quantity of seeds used usually depends on spacing or plant population desired. (e.g the seed rate of maize is 25 —30 kg/ hectare).
Thinning:Thinning is the removal of weak plants from a stand, to give rise to one or two vigorous crop plants. It is usually done by hand and practiced when the crop plants are very young.
Weeding:This is the removal of unwanted plants which grow among cultivated crops. Weeding or weed control is done regularly on farmlands in order to prevent competition with crops for space, sunlight, nutrients, soil moisture, soil oxygen, etc. Weeding can be done manually by hoeing, cutlassing, etc or chemically with the use of specific herbicides, or mechanically with machine.
Mulching:Mulching is the covering of heaps or ridges with dry leaves to reduce soil temperature, conserve soil moisture and prevent rottening of some• crop plants, e.g. yam setts.
Spacing:Spacing refers to the distance within and between crop plants in a farmland. This ensures greater yield of crops and prevents over — crowding. and easy ventilation within and between rows of crop plants For example, the spacing for maize could be 90 cm x 30 cm at one seed per hole or 75cm x 25cm at two seeds per ho1e.
Staking:Staking is the act of providing stakes or certain plant or wood to enable the crop plants stand erect and prevent lodging. Stems are tied or trained to the stakes. Staking allows for good fruiting and keeps fruits from disease attack arising from contact with soil. Staking is usually done before flowering. Examples of crop plants that require staking are tomato and yam.
Pruning:Pruning is the removal of lower branches of crop plant using sharp cutlass. Pruning encourages better canopy formation, more light penetration and improved air movement. Examples of crops that usually require pruning are cocoa, oil palm, rubber, orange, mango, etc.
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY