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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given per...

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CULTURAL PRACTICES IN CROP PRODUCTION


SOME CULTURAL PRACTICES IN CROP PRODUCTION

Shading

(i) Art of erecting cover above seedlings.
(ii) Protects seedlings from harsh external environmental conditions e.g. sun and rain drops. Reduces evapo-transpiration. Shades are progressively removed until they are finally dispensed with.
(i) Materials used for shading include palm fronds, tall grasses and tarpaulins.







Supplying / filling-in

(i) The replacement of seeds that fail to germinate or seedling that dies
(ii) It is earned out to maintain desired plant population.
(iii) Usually done by transplanting new seedlings or planting new seeds in the site for the ungerminated seed.
(iv) It is usually manually done.
(v) Done within 2 weeks of 1st planting to obtain uniformity in growth (growth uniformity).

Nursery

(i) Nursery can be practiced in polypots, seed boxes and bed.
(ii) Seeds which are smaller and delicate or plants which are delicate while young require pre-planting sites known as nurseries are meant to have seedlings become adjusted to the harsh environment
(iv) Nursery sites should have good top soil with good drainage
(v) Seeds are mostly broadcast or drilled and lightly covered with soil.
(vi) Watering is done with a fine rose watering can
(i) All seed boxes, beds, drills must be properly labeled
(ii) Nurseries are usually shaded
(iii) Usually enclosed or fenced


(iv)

Weeding, pest and disease control and application of fertilizer are usually practiced in the nursery

(5)

Seed rate:

Seed rate refers to the quantity of seeds required to plant one hectare of land. Quantity of seeds used usually depends on spacing or plant population desired. (e.g the seed rate of maize is 25 —30 kg/ hectare).
(6)

Thinning:

Thinning is the removal of weak plants from a stand, to give rise to one or two vigorous crop plants. It is usually done by hand and practiced when the crop plants are very young.
(7)

Weeding:

This is the removal of unwanted plants which grow among cultivated crops. Weeding is done regularly on farmlands in order to prevent competition with crops for space, sunlight, nutrients, soil moisture, soil oxygen, etc. Weeding can be done manually by hoeing, cutlassing, etc or chemically with the use of specific herbicides, or mechanically with machine.
(8)

Mulching:

Mulching is the covering of heaps or ridges with dry leaves to reduce soil temperature, conserve soil moisture and prevent rottening of some• crop plants, e.g. yam setts.
(9)

Spacing:

Spacing refers to the distance within and between crop plants in a farmland. This ensures greater yield of crops and prevents over — crowding. and easy ventilation within and between rows of crop plantsFor example, the spacing for maize could be 90 cm x 30 cm at one seed per hole or 75cm x 25cm at two seeds per ho1e.
(1))

Staking:

Staking is the act of providing stakes or certain plant or wood to enable the crop plants stand erect and prevent lodging. Stems are tied or trained to the stakes. Staking allows for good fruiting and keeps fruits from disease attack arising from contact with soil. Staking is usually done before flowering. Examples of crop plants that require staking are tomato and yam.
(11)

Pruning:

Pruning is the removal of lower branches of crop plant using sharp cutlass. Pruning encourages better canopy formation, more light penetration and improved air movement. Examples of crops that usually require pruning are cocoa, oil palm, rubber, orange, mango, etc.







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL





88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF