DEEP LITTER SYSTEM OF POULTRY MANAGEMENT


DEEP LITTER SYSTEM

FEATURES OF A POULTRY DEEP LITTER HOUSE
(i) The floor of the house is made of concrete.
(ii) The walls are made of sand Crete, mud, zinc or wood, and usually about 60cm – 90cm high
(i) The roof is made of asbestos sheets, corrugated iron sheets or it is thatched
(ii) The space between walls and roof is covered with wire-nettings for good ventilation
(iii) The floor is uniformly covered with wood shavings to serve as litter for absorbing poultry droppings
(iv) Poultry set such as feeding and drinking troughs are placed in convenient places inside the pen
(v) Such equipment may be placed on the floor for the young chicks and on raised platforms or hung from the roofs for the older birds
(vi) The number of birds housed depends on the size of the house and the age of the birds. Usually, three adult birds to 1m of floor space.
(ix) The direction of wind and sunshine is normally considered when sitting the deep-litter house (east-west direction)
(x) Disinfectant bath or food dips are usually provided at the entrance of the house to prevent introduction of disease pathogens by visitors.
(xi) Litter is normally changed periodically as occasions demand to prevent disease build-up.
(xii) The house may be partitioned ml pens to house different age group for convenience of management and avoidance of disease spread.
(xiii) Laying nests are adequate provided.
(xiv) Gutter with insecticide - treated water around the house are provided to prevent the attack
Soldier ants.
Apart from wood shavings, other suitable litter materials include crush cobs of maize (after removing the grains crushed dry kenaf stems and peanut shell Saw-dust must never be used as litter material because of certain disadvantage such as:
(i) Due to its fineness, it is not durable as litter material.
(ii) The birds inhale the dust which creates chest congestion, leading respiratory problems.
(iii) Saw-dust cakes up easily.
(iv) It habours more bacteria than other systems.
(v) It also contains more foreign bodies like nails, etc than other systems.




ADVANTAGES OF THE DEEP LITTER SYSTEM

(i) It increases efficiency in poultry management
(ii) It facilitates the management of very large flock
(iii) It maximizes the use of land
(iv) It increases the rate of growth and production
(v) It maximizes the use of labour
(vi) It reduces the loss of eggs to vermin, snakes and thieves
(vii) Birds are protected from harsh weather conditions
(viii) It facilitates the ease of identification of sick birds

DISADVANTAGES OF THE DEEP LITTER SYSTEM

(i) The cost of construction of deep litter house is high
(ii) It requires a large quantity of litter which adds to the cost of production
(iii) There is wastage of feed by birds
(iv) Cannibalism and pecking of eggs are common
(v) There is high spreading rate of disease and parasite
(vi) The litter makes eggs dirty
(vii) It is difficult to detect unproductive birds
(viii) It is very difficult to catch birds on deep litter system





HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION





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