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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

FACTORS INFLUENCING NUTRIENTS AVAILABILITY IN THE SOIL2


FACTORS INFLUENCING NUTRIENTS AVAILABILITY IN THE SOIL

The factors which influence the availability of nutrients in the soil include the following:
Soil pH:
The degree of acidity or alkalinity of the soil affects the availability of nutrients, both in the soil and also to plants.
(i) A low pH (high acidity) will encourage the disintegration of clay like calcium, iron and aluminum, which are leached away from the soil.
(ii) At high pH (high alkalinity), calcium and magnesium ions accumulate in the soil, and this affects the growth of plants.
(iii) A low pH also reduces the activities of soil living organisms which aid the decomposition of organic matter.
(2)

Concentration of Other Nutrients

(1) The presence of certain element(s) in high concentration may prevent the absorption or utilization of other elements.
(ii) The concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil results in the non-availability of potassium.
(i) This condition results in retarded growth, low yield or even death of the plant.









(3)

Leaching

(i) This is the removal of nutrients from the top soil to the inner parts of the soil beyond the reach of the roots of plant.
(ii) It results in the loss of nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, potassium from the top soil in solution.
(iii) It also results in the accumulation of aluminum and hydrogen ions which become acidic and toxic to plants.


(4)

Crop Removal

(i) Nutrients are removed from the soil by crops for growth, development and production.
(ii) When the crops are harvested, the nutrients contained in the plants are never returned to the soil.
(iii) The rapid removal of nutrients from the soil by continuous cropping completely deprives the soil of such nutrients.


(5)

Oxidation and Reduction of Organic Material

(i) Some compounds such as ammonium radicals are oxidized to gaseous ammonia.
(ii) Nitrates are also reduced to molecular nitrogen or oxides of nitrogen by denitrifying bacteria.
(iii) These products (i.e. ammonium radicals and nitrates) which escape into the atmosphere in form of gases make the soil become poorer in nutrients.
(6)

Burning

(i) It exposes the soil to erosion which can wash away plant nutrients in the soil.
(ii) It burns the organic matter content of the soil, thereby reducing the amount of nutrients in the soil.
(iii) It kills or reduces the number of soil organisms which aid decomposition of materials, and consequently, most nutrients may not be available to the soil.

(7)

Soil Texture

(i) Fine texture, such as clay and silt, ensures the availability of nutrients in the soil.
(ii) But coarse texture like sand prevents the availability of nutrients in the soil.
(iii) Coarse texture encourages the leaching of nutrients from the soil.


(8)

Erosion

(i) Heavy rainfall causes the washing or carrying away of top soil which is rich in plant nutrients.
(ii) Top soil can also be blown away by winds, resulting in nutrient reduction in the soil.

(9)

Soil Moisture Content

(i) Soil moisture content determines the level of nutrients in the soil.
(ii) High level of soil moisture can lead to toxicity of nutrients in the soil.
(iii) High moisture content can lead to soil erosion that can wash away nutrients in the soil.
(iv) Moderate moisture in the soil ensures adequate availability of nutrients in the soil
(v) Very low soil moisture leads to dryness or non-availability of nutrients for plants.
(10) Level of organic matter/microorganisms in the soil
(i) High level of organic matter and micro-organisms lead to adequate availability of nutrients in the soil.
(ii) High level of organic matter ensures availability of water in the soil and vice versa..
(iii) High level of micro-organisms the soil ensures good growth for crop plants
(iv) High level of organic matter in the soil helps to prevent soil erosion.
(v) Adequate level of organic matter improves the activities of microorganisms in the doil.
(vi) Organic manure also helps to improve the structure of the soil.
(vii) It also reduces rapid soil temperature fluctuations.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE