Farming systems


TYPES OF FARMING SYSTEMS

Farming systems include the following:

Shifting cultivation and bush fallow system.

Shifting cultivation is a system of farming where a farmer cultivates on a piece of land for some years, until yields start to decrease. The farmer now abandons such land and moves to a different location without having the intention to go back to the original area. He may, however, return to the area again by accident.
In the


bush fallow system

, which is a form of shifting cultivation, the farmer cultivates on a piece of land for two or more years and intentionally leaves it for some years to enable the land to grow into bush and regain its lost nutrients before it can be used again. In this system, the farmer may not move away from that area completely, but may rotate his cultivation from one portion to another. Simply put, bush fallow system is known as land rotation and that period when the land is allowed to rest, so that the lost nutrients can be restored, is referred to as fallow period. The lost nutrients are restored to the soil through the decomposition of dead plants and animals.
In the past, shifting cultivation or bush fallowing was made possible due to low population and availability of enough land. But with the increase in population and man’s activities on land, such as road construction, building of schools, hospitals, recreational centres, living houses, industries, churches, game reserves, stadia, etc., there is hardly enough land to Practise this system of farming.





Differences between shifting cultivation and land rotation or bush fallowing

:
Shifting cultivation is a farming system whereby a piece of land is cultivated continuously for some years and then abandoned as a result of the decline in soil fertility, build-up of pests and diseases, and the resultant reduction in crop yield. The farmer abandons not only the exhausted farmland but also his settlement for a new farm and a new settlement with no hope of coming back. Whereas, land rotation involves growing crops on a piece of land until it is exhausted and the land is left to fallow for some years before it is used again. The farmer clears other areas in succession to make new farms while remaining in his farmstead.

Advantages of shifting cultivation or bush fallowing:

(i) Shifting cultivation is possible where there is enough land and low population density.
(ii) The soil fertility is easily restored during the period of fallow.
(i) It does not require capital investment on fertilizer.
(ii) It prevents the accumulation and spread of pests, diseases and certain weeds on a particular land or area.
(i) Burning is a feature of shifting cultivation and it helps in killing many harmful organisms in the soil

Disadvantages of shifting cultivation or bush fallowing:

(i) Shifting cultivation requires enough land and low population to succeed.
(ii) Many useful organisms living in the soil are usually destroyed during burning
(iii) The system encourages soil erosion.




(iv) It requires much energy lime and money to clear a new farmland.
(v) Under this system the farmer does not make any meaningful effort to improve on soil fertility.
(vi) It is very tedious moving 1mm one area Lu another, because the farmer may likely move his home to the new area.
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION





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