FERTILIZATION IN FARM ANIMALS



FERTILIZATION

(i) fertilization is the fusion of the male sex cell or gamete (sperm) and the female sex cell or gamete (ovum or egg)
(ii) fertilization occurs in the oviduct or fallopian tube
(iii) fertilization finally leads to the formation of zygote
(iv) fertilization may occur when an animal is on heat period


The union of the cytoplasm and pro-nuclei of the male females gametes to form a diploid zygote is known as the fertilization.


External and Internal Fertilization:


Fertilization necessitates discharge of ova and sperms in close proximity. This may be accomplished in water in aquatic animals, or in special cavities of the female, more commonly in land animals.



In most aquatic animals, such as echinoderms, many fish and amphibians (frogs) both ova and sperms are laid directly into water where they fertilize. This is called external fertilization taking place outside the body of the organism. In other aquatic animals (e.g., cephalopods) and in most terrestrial animals, the male deposits sperms, during copulation, either into the oviduct of the female (as in vertebrates) or into special receptacles called spermathecae (e.g., insects, spiders), so that fertilization takes place inside the body of the organism. This is called internal fertilization.



Site of fertilization


In human being, fertilization takes place mostly in the ampullary-isthmic junction of the oviduct (Fallopian tube).
Arrival of sperms:

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


Male discharges semen into the female’s vagina close to the cervix during coitus (copulation). This is called insemination. A single ejaculation of semen may contain 300 million sperms.
Movement of sperms:

From the vagina the sperms travel up the uterus but only a few thousand find their way into the openings of the fallopian tubes. Primarily, contractions of the uterus and fallopian tubes assist in sperm movement but later on they move by their own motility. Sperms swim in the fluid medium at the rate of 1.5 to 3 mm per minute to reach the site. The leucocytes of the vaginal epithelium engulf millions of sperms.
Arrival of secondary oocyte:

In human being, the secondary oocyte is released from the mature Graafian follicle of an ovary (ovulation). The oocyte is received by the nearby Fallopian funnel and sent into the Fallopian tube by movements of fimbriae and their cilia. The secondary oocyte can be fertilized only within 24 hours after its release from the ovary.

The secondary oocyte is surrounded by numerous sperms but only one sperm succeeds in fertilizing the oocyte. Since the second meiotic division is in progress, so the sperm enters the secondary oocyte. Second meiotic division is completed by the entry of the sperm into the secondary oocyte. After this secondary oocyte is called ovum (egg).
Capacitation of sperms:




The sperms in the female’s genital tract are made capable of fertilizing the egg by secretions of the female genital tract. These secretions of the female genital tract remove coating substances deposited on the surface of the sperms particularly those on the acrosome. Thus, the receptor sites on the acrosome are exposed and sperm becomes active to penetrate the egg. This phenomenon of sperm activation in mammals is known as capacitation. It takes about 5 to 6 hours for capacitation.

The secretions of seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands (Cowper’s glands) in the semen contain nutrients which activate the sperms. The secretions of these glands also neutralise the acidity in the vagina. Alkaline medium makes the sperms more active.
Physical and Chemical Events of Fertilization:

These events include the following processes:
(i) Acrosomal reaction:

After ovulation, the secondary oocyte reaches the Fallopian tube (oviduct). The capacitated sperms undergo acrosomal reaction and release various chemicals contained in the acrosome. These chemicals are collectively called sperm lysins. Important sperm lysins are:

(i) hyaluronidase that acts on the ground substances of follicle cells,



(ii) corona pen­etrating enzyme that dissolves corona radiata and (iii) zona lysine or acrosin that helps to digest the zona pellucida.

Optimum pH, Ca++, Mg++ ions concentration and temperature are essential for acrosomal reaction. Ca++ plays major role in acrosomal reaction. In the absence of Ca++, fertilization does not occur.

Due to acrosomal reaction, plasma membrane of the sperm fuses with the plasma membrane of the secondary oocyte so that the sperm contents enter the oocyte. Binding of the sperm to the secondary oocyte induces depolarization of the oocyte plasma membrane. Depolarization prevents polyspermy (entry of more than one sperm into the oocyte). It ensures monospermy (entry of one sperm into the oocyte).

image
(ii) Cortical reaction:

Just after the fusion of sperm and plasma membranes of oocyte, the secondary oocyte shows a cortical reaction. The cortical granules are present beneath the plasma membrane of the secondary oocyte. These granules fuse with the plasma membrane of the oocyte and release their contents including enzymes between the plasma membrane and the zona pellu­cida. These enzymes harden the zona pellucida which also prevents entry of additional sperms (polyspermy).
(iii) Sperm entry:

At the point of contact with the sperms, the secondary oocyte forms a pro­jection termed the cone of reception or fertilization cone which receives the sperm. The distal centriole of the sperm divides and forms two centrioles to generate the mitotic spindle formation for cell division. The mammalian secondary oocyte (egg) does not have centrioles of its own.
(iv) Karyogamy (Amphimixis):

Sperm entry stimulates the secondary oocyte to complete the suspended second meiotic division. This produces a haploid mature ovum and a second polar body. The head of the sperm which contains the nucleus separates from the middle piece and the tail and becomes the male pronucleus. The second polar body and the sperm tail degenerate.

The nucleus of the ovum is now called, the female pronucleus. The male and female pronuclei move towards each other. Their nuclear membranes disintegrate mixing up of the chromosomes of a sperm and an ovum is known as karyogamy or amphimixis. The fertilized ovum (egg) is now called zygote (Gr. zygon- yolk, zygosis- a joining). The zygote is diploid unicellular cell that has 46 chromosomes in humans. The mother is now said to be pregnant.
(v) Activation of egg:

Sperm entry stimulates metabolism in the zygote. As a result, the rates of cellular respiration and protein synthesis increase greatly.
Process of fertilization:

The process of fertilization includes the following steps which are as follows:
(a) Activation of the egg:

It is completed in the following stages:

(i) Movement of the sperm towards the egg:

Encounter between the sperm and ovum is purely accidental, because the movements of spermatozoa are entirely at random. But in some species the sperms are guided towards the ovum by chemical substances. The fertilizins and antiferlilizins become active after the chance collision of the sperms with the ova.

Egg secretes a chemical substance known as fertilizin (composed of glycoprotein). Sperm has on its surface layer a protein substance called antifertilizin (composed of acidic amino acids). The fertilizin of an egg interacts with the antifertilizin of a sperm of the same species. This interaction makes the sperms stick to the egg surface. Adhesion of spermato­zoa to the surface of the egg is brought about by linking of fertilizin molecules which establish an initial bond.
(ii) Activation of the sperm:

The peripheral portion of the acrosome of sperm breaks and releases its contents, the sperm lysins. The central portion of the acrosome elongates and forms a thin, long tube known as the acrosomal filament.

When the sperm possesses such an acrosomal filament protruding out from the sperm head it is said to be activated for the penetration in the unfertilized egg. The released enzyme hyaluronidase (sperm lysin) by the acrosome dissolves the corona radiata, zona pellucida and vitelline membrane, en­abling the sperm to penetrate these coverings.
(iii) The activation of egg insemination:

At the point of contact with the sperm, the egg forms a projection, termed the cone of reception or fertilization cone which receives the sperm. The penetration of the sperm in the egg is known as the insemination. Just after the entry of the sperm into the egg, a fertilization membrane is formed in the egg to prevent the entry of other sperms.
(b) Amphimixis:

During the insemination the entire sperm may enter in the egg as in mammals or the sperm leaves its tail outside the egg or sheds it shortly after entering the egg’s cytoplasm. The ovum completes the second meiotic division and extrudes the second polar body. The head of the sperm swells to form the male pronucleus and the nucleus of the ovum becomes the female pronucleus. The fusion of the haploid male pronucleus with the haploid female pro­nucleus forms the nucleus of the fertilized egg or zygote.

Embryo:

Cleavage:

The term cleavage or segmentation is applied to the series of rapid mitotic division of the zygote which converts the single celled zygote into a multicellular structure blastomeres called morula which ultimately transforms into blastula, having unilayered thick blastoderm around a central space, blastocoel. Types of Cleavage

A Based on the amount and pattern of distribution of yolk in the zygote, cleavage is of two types: holoblastic and meroblastic.

1. Holoblastic cleavage:

It divides the zygote and blastomeres completely into daughter cells. It is of two types: equal and unequal.

(i) Equal Holoblastic Cleavage:

It forms equal blastomeres. It occurs in star fish.

(ii) Unequal Holoblastic Cleavage:

It forms unequal blastomeres. Blastomeres are micromeres (smaller) and macromeres (larger). It is found in frog.

2. Meroblastic cleavage:

In this type of cleavage, the divisions are confined to the animal pole or peripheral region of egg. The yolk remains undivided. It is of two types: discoidal and superficial.

(i) Discoidal Cleavage:

The divisions are confined to the cytoplasmic disc located at the animal pole. It occurs in reptiles, birds and egg laying mammals.

(ii) Superficial Cleavage:

The cleavage remains restricted to the peripheral portion of the egg. It occurs in arthropods especially insects.

B. Based on the potentiality of the blastomeres, cleavage is of two types: determinate and indeter­minate.

1. Determinate (Mosaic) Cleavage:

In this type of cleavage a complete embryo is formed only if all the blastomeres remain together e.g., annelid eggs.

2. Indeterminate (Non-mosaic) Cleavage:

In this type of cleavage each early blastomere on separation from other blasomeres may give rise to complete embryo e.g., chordate eggs.






Gastrulation


Formation of gastrula from the monoblastic blastula is called gastrulation. Gastrulation is that phase of embryonic development during which the cells of blastula (in frogs) / blastodermic vesicle (in mammals) move in small masses or as a sheet of cells to attain the final location. Such movements of cells are called morphogenetic movement. It is differentiated into two types.

1. Epiboly:

The term epiboly is derived from Greek language, meaning ‘throwing on’ or ‘extend­ing upon’. Epiboly means overgrowth of the ectoderm – forming regions around the endoderm forming region. It occurs in frog where the micromeres divide rapidly in the animal half and spread over the megameres over the vegetal half.

2. Emboly:

The term emboly is also derived from Greek language meaning “throw in” or “thrust in”. Migration of prospective endodermal and mesodermal cells from the surface into the interior of the embryo is called emboly. It includes invagination, involution, ingression and delamination.

(i) Invagination:

It is the process of infolding or inpushing of the vegetal pole of the embryo (blastula) into its cavity (blastocoel), forming a double-walled structure. It is just like the pushing in one side of a rubber ball with a thumb. Invagination occurs in the blastula of frog.

(ii) Involution:

The term involution means a ‘turning in’ or ‘rolling under’. Involution is the process of rolling or turning in of the surface cells into the interior of the embryo. It occurs in frog’s blastula.

(iii) Ingression:

The term ingression means “inward migration”. In ingression the blastomeres form new cells from their surface. New cells migrate into the blastocoel of the blastula to form a solid gastrula. It means, it forms solid gastrula or sterogastrula without archenteron (primitive cavity). Archenteron is formed later by splitting the internal cell mass. Ingres­sion is of two kinds.

(a) Unipolar Ingression:

Inward migration of cells is restricted to the vegetal pole only. It is seen in Obelia.

(b) Apolar Ingression:

Inward migration of cells occurs from ail sides of the blastoderm (wall of blastula). It occurs in Hydra.

(iv) Delamination:

The term delamination means ‘splitting off’. Delamination is a process in which the separation of a layer of cells occurs from the original layer of the blastula. It occurs during gastrulation of chick and rabbit.

In all the triploblastic animals, three germs layers namely ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, are formed by the morphogenetic movements.

Process:

In human, the germ lavers are formed so quickly that it is difficult to determine the exact sequence of events.

Formation of Embryonic Disc


We have seen that early blastocyst consists of inner cell mass and trophoblast. The inner cell mass contains cells called stem cells which have the potency to give rise to all tissues and organs. The cells of the inner cell mass differentiate into two layers around 8 days after fertilization, a hypoblast and epiblast. The hypoblast (primitive endoderm) is a layer of columnar cells and epiblast (primitive ectoderm) is a layer of cuboidal cells. The cells of the hypoblast and epiblast together form a two layered embryonic disc.

image




Formation of Amniotic Cavity


A space appears between epiblast and trophoblast, called amniotic cavity filled with amniotic fluid. The roof of this cavity is formed by amniogenic cells derived from the trophoblast, while its floor is formed by the epiblast.

Formation of Extra-embryonic Coelom:

The cells of the trophoblast give rise to the mass of cells called the extra-embryonic mesoderm. This mesoderm is called extraembryonic because it lies outside the embryonic disc. It does not give rise to any tissue of the embryo itself. The extraembryonic mesoderm is differentiated into outer somatopleuric extra-embryonic mesoderm and inner splanchnopleuric extraembryonic mesoderm. Both these layers enclose the extraembryonic coelom.

Formation of Chorion and Amnion:

At this stage, two very important embryonic membranes, the chorion and amnion, are formed. The chorion is formed by the somatopleuric extra-embryonic mesoderm inside and the trophoblast outside. The amnion is formed by the amniogenic cells inside and splanchnopleuric extraembryonic mesoderm outside.

As mentioned earlier the amniogenic cells are derived from the trophoblast. Later on chorion becomes the main embryonic part of the placenta. The chorion also produces human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) an important hormone of pregnancy.

Amnion surrounds the embryo creating the amniotic cavity that is filled with amniotic fluid. The amniotic fluid serves as a shock absorber for the foetus, regulates foetal body temperature and prevents desiccation.

Formation of Yolk Sac:

Flattened cells arising from the hypoblast spread and line inside the blastocoel. These are endodermal cells lining the primary yolk sac. With the appearance of the extraembryonic mesoderm and later of the extraembryonic coelom, the yolk sac (embryonic membrane) becomes much smaller than before and is now called the secondary yolk sac.

This change in size is due to change in the nature of the lining cells. These cells are no longer flattened but become cubical. The secondary yolk sac consists of outer splanchnopleuric extra embryonic mesoderm and inner endodermal cells.

The yolk sac is a source of blood cells. It also functions as a shock absorber and helps prevent desiccation of the embryo.

Formation of Primitive Streak

:

Gastrulation involves the rearrangement and migration of cells from the epiblast. A primitive streak which is a faint groove on the dorsal surface of the epiblast is formed. It elongates from the posterior to the entire part of the embryo. The primitive streak clearly establishes the head and the tail ends of the embryo as well as its right and left sides.

image

Formation of Embryonic Layers:

After the formation of the primitive streak, cells of the epiblast move inward below the primitive streak and detach from the epiblast. This inverting movement is called invagination. Once the cells have invaginated, some of them displace the hypoblast forming the endoderm. Other cells remain between the epiblast and newly formed endoderm forms the mesoderm. Cells remaining in the epiblast form ectoderm.

Thus three germ layers, namely endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm are formed which give rise to all the tissues and organs of the body.

Organogenesis:

The primitive germ layers formed during gastrulation spilt into groups of cells called as primary organ rudiments and the process of formation of organs from the three germ layers is known as organogenies. The primary organ rudiments further subdivide into secondary organ rudiments which are the initial stages in the formation of organs and their parts. A this stage the embryo acquires resemblances with the adult or a larva.

oppurtunities

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE Farm mechanization has the following advantages 1. TI...

popular post of all time