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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

FUNCTIONS OF PLANT NUTRIENTS AND THEIR DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS


PLANTS NUTRIENTS AND NUTRIENT CYCLES

Plants require nutrients or elements obtained from the soil for good growth and healthy development. These elements or nutrients are classified into two main groups which are:

Macro-Nutrients

Macro-nutrients are mineral elements or nutrients required by crops in large quantities. Examples of macro-nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sulphur.

Micro Nutrients or Trace Elements

Micro nutrients are mineral elements or nutrients required by crops in small quantities. Examples of micro-nutrients are zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum, iron, chlorine and manganese.

FUNCTIONS AND DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF PLANT NUTRIENTS

The functions and deficiency symptoms of these elements or nutrients are summarized below:
Elements Functions Deficiency Symptoms
1 Nitrogen (i) It aids plants growth and reproduction because it is an essential constituent of all proteins









(ii) It increases the size of grain in cereals or carbonhydrate synthesis
(iii) It promotes vegetative and short system growth
(iv) Excess nitrogen delays maturation and fruiting
(v) It promotes uptake of potassium and phosphorus from the soul
(vi) It promotes chlorophyll formation or deep green colour of leaves
(vii) It is necessary for the synthesis of plant hormones/enzymes/auxins (i) Stunted growth
(ii) Yellowing of leaves (Chlorosis)
(iii) Leaves tend to drop
(iv) Poor formation of fruits and flowers
2 Phosphorus (i) It aids enzyme reactions
(ii) It is a constituent of cell nucleaus and essential for cell division
(iii) It increases crop resistance to diseases
(iv) It helps in ripening of fruits
(v) It helps in root development, seed germination, fruit formation and maturity
(vi) It aids seed germination
(vii) It aids fruit formation and maturity
(viii) It improves the good taste of forages and vegetables (i) Logging results in cereal crops
(ii) Leaves turn to purple and brownish colouration from tip backwards
(iii) Stunted growth
(iv) Inhibition of flowering, fruits and seed formation
(v) Poor root development
(vi) Immature fruit drop
3 Potassium (i) It is an important constituent of plant tissues
(ii) It aids synthesis of carbohydrate
(iii) It activates various plant enzyme reactions
(iv) It promotes the development of young plants
(v) It is necessary for neutralization of organic acids in plants
(vi) It is associated with stomata movement and therefore influences water relationship within the plant
(vii) It is a major constituent of plant tissue
(viii) It helps in nitrate uptake from the soil (i) Weak slender stems
(ii) Delayed growth
(iii) Premature loss of leaves






(iv) Brown colour at margin of leaves
4 Calcium (i) It strengthens plant cell walls with calcium pectate
(ii) It helps in the translocation and storage of carbohydrate and proteins into sees and tubers
(iii) It controls the toxicity of aluminum manganese and sodium ions
(iv) It is necessary for the normal growth of root tips
(v) It strengthens plant cell walls
(vi) It helps in high flocculation i.e. good aeration, water infiltration and retention
(vii) It improves the pH of the soil so that nitrogen fixation can be carried out (i) It causes stunting of the root system
(ii) There is appearance of pale yellow colour in the leaves
(iii) Weak slender plants
5 Magnesium (i) It is important in the synthesis of carbohydrate as it is a constituent of chlorophyll
(ii) It assists in the transportation of phosphate, as essential materials to developing fruit seeds
(iii) It enhances plant growth
(iv) It is required for normal cell division
(v) It is necessary for synthesis of oils in plants (i) Chlorosis along the leaf veins
(ii) Stunted growth
(iii) Premature leaf fall
6 Sulphur (i) It is a constituent of plant proteins since it occurs in some amino acids such as cystine and methionine
(ii) It is also a constituent of plant hormones such as biotein and thiamin
(iii) It is essential for chlorophyll formation
(iv) It is also required for carbohydrate metabolism and nitrogen fixation by legumes (i) Yellowing of leaves
(ii) Stunted growth
(iii) Poor rate of photosynthesis
7 Iron (i) It is necessary for chlorophyll formation
(ii) It is necessary for protein synthesis contained in chloroplasts
(iii) It is important in enzyme systems associated with oxidation and reduction reaction (i) Chlorotic condition in leaves, which becomes pale green
8 Manganese (i) It is a constituent of enzymes which are responsible for protein synthesis
(ii) It is important for certain nitrogen transformation in plants and micro-organisms (iii) Young leaves show pale greenish yellow discolouration between veins
9 Copper (i) It is a constituent of certain enzymes
(ii) It is necessary for photosynthesis
(iii) It is involved in respiration and utilization of iron (i) Pale green colour of leaves
(ii) The tips of older leaves dry off and die
(iii) Young leaves tips die back
10 Zinc (i) It is involved in the action of certain enzymes (ii) Production of mottled or extremely small leaves


11 Boron (i) It is an important nutrient in protein synthesis
(ii) It facilitates the development of roots
(iii) It assists in the formation of fruits and seeds
(iv) It encourages the division of cells in the growing regions of plants
(v) It increases yield
(vi) It facilitates nodulation in leguminous plants (i) It causes the death of tips of roots and shoots
(ii) Failure of flower buds to develop
(iii) It causes poor growth of plants
(iv) It causes breaking or lodging
(v) It decreases the rate of water absorption and translocation of sugars
12 Molybdenum (i) It aids nitrogen fixation acids and proteins
(ii) It is an essential part of enzymatic system involved in facilitating nitrogen change, breakdown of leaf edges (i) Promotes metabolism of nitrates into amino acids and proteins
(ii) It causes mottled leaves
(iii) It leads to curling and
(iv) It causes premature flower drops

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE