INCUBATION OF EGGSDefinition: Incubation is the process providing fertilized eggs with optimum conditions of temperature, relative humidity and ventilation necessary for development of chicks and their success itching.
TYPES OF INCUBATIONThere are two types of incubation. These are:
Natural Incubation:The natural incubation is done by the hen itself, after having a number of eggs. The hen broody i.e., it stops laying in order incubate the eggs already laid. The hen lays up to 15 eggs and stops. It sits on the e 4 provides all conditions of temperature relative humidity and ventilation required for the chicks to develop and hatch. It turns its eggs on regular basis. This practice is common in the villages where chickens are raised extensively and places where there are no facilities for artificial incubation.
Natural incubation is not desirable in commercial poultry production because, when hens go broody, egg production stops i.e. the commercial enterprise will not realize a good number of eggs from its flock.
The number of eggs that can be incubated by a hen at any time is very small.
Storage: The body temperature of hen is between 41’C- 42C. At the time the egg is
Artificial Incubation:This is designed to provide the ideal conditions naturally provided by hen. It uses manmade devices called incubators to provide optimum conditions necessary for the development of the embryo into chick. The incubator is the most important equipment in hatchery. Many types of incubator, ranging in size from small to room type, are made. Eggs are set in trolleys.
ADVANTAGES OF ARTIFICIAL INCUBATION1. Hens do not have to stop egg production. Consequently, a large number of eggs are produced within a short period.
2. Large number of eggs are incubated and hatched at the same time (incubators of over 100,000 egg capacity are even available)
Collection and Storage of Hatching EggsCollection: Hatching eggs are supposed to be collected at least 3- 4 times a day. Under our tropical environment, it is good to collect more often than this. This will help to reduce deterioration and consequently reduce hatching potentials.
Storage: The body temperature of hen is between 41oc – 42oC. At the time the egg is dropped, it is at that body temperature and the embryonic development still continues. This reduces the hatching potential of the egg. Consequently, eggs are stored in egg holding room for periods ranging from two days to two weeks.
Storage conditions include a temperature of about 1 8 and a relative humidity of 75 -80 %. Eggs are stored with the large end facing upward while turning of the eggs may not be necessary within the first two weeks but above two weeks. Turning is advisable to prevent contact of embryos with shell membrane, which may cause dehydration or physical damage.
MEASURES FOR THE EFFICIENT OPERATION OF AN EGG INCUBATOR(i) Maintain the right temperature during incubation
(ii) Test-run the incubator before you set eggs inside
(iii) Maintain the right RH during incubation
(iv) Allow for adequate escape of CO, from incubator
(v) Ensure a regular power supply to the incubator
(vi) Place incubator away from walls
(vii) Candle eggs progressively
(viii) Fumigate incubator before setting eggs
(ix) Incubator should be handled by trained and experience personnel
Incubation Procedures(1) Prior to setting eggs in the incubators the eggs should be brought out from cold room and left to attain random temperature in order to eliminate sweating.
(ii) The incubator which must have been cleaned and disinfected if started early enough, to attain optimum temperature and relative humidity before eggs are placed in it.
(iii) The eggs are arranged in egg setting trays and placed in the incubator. It is good practice to fumigate the eggs before setting.
Optimum Incubation Conditions(i) Temperature: Temperature is usually37-39°C.
(ii) Relative humidity: Relative humidity of 50 - 60% during the first 19 days and 75% during the last two to three days to prevent dehydrating the chicks in the hatcher.
(iii) Ventilation (Air flow): Free movement of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapour through the shell is very essential for the developing embryo. The tolerant limit of carbon dioxide in incubator or hatcher is 0.5%.
(iv) Egg Positioning during Incubation: Eggs are usually placed in the incubator with the large end facing upward. However, some studies indicate that eggs set with the large ends downward hatch equally good and under natural conditions, the hens hatch eggs in horizontal position.
(v) Egg Turning: If eggs are left in one position throughout the incubation period, they hatch poorly. This is because of physical damage caused b.the yolk sticking to one side of the shell. Under natural conditions, .the hen turns the eggs with her beak and body. However, modern incubators are also equipped with automatic turning mechanism which turns the eggs six to eight times a day.
Hatching:The 21-day incubation period of domestic fowl can be seen as consisting of first 18-19 days incubation in the setter and last two to three days hatching in t
(i) Testing for fertility: Infertile eg and dead embryo can be detected about days after incubation by the process call candling. The machine used to detect living or dead and developing embryos called the egg candler. Candling consists of the passage of concentrated source of light through the egg in a dark room in order to see through the egg. It is usually not done in commercial basis because of the number of eggs involved. However, it is routinely done in research stations. At least two candling are done usually in six to seven days of incubation. With candling, you can determine fertile eggs. Here, live embryo shows a spider-like appearance in the egg. Infertile eggs are clear with no spider-like appearance.
During first candling, one can determine embryos that die during the first week called Dl (died within first week). These eggs do not show any radiating blood vessels. Rather, blood vessels adhering to the shell or a pink blood ring maybe seen.
Second candling is done in e 18/19 day prior to transfer of, the eggs from setter to the hatcher for hatching. If the first candling was well done, only dead embryos in the period between he first and second period will be tested put ,tie 1ie embryo nar1y fills the egg or moves when tie egg is rotated and blood vessels become apparent. Dead embryos appear as a liveless mass of dark shadow. During the second candling, the live embryo fills the entire egg, i.e., D.
EFFORTS TO ENSURE UNIFORMITY OF HATCHINGThe steps that should be taken to ensure that the eggs hatch at about the same time include the following:
(i) setting eggs uniformly on the tray
(ii) timely and regular turning of eggs
(iii) ensure suitable environmental conditions, i.e temperature, relative humidity and ventilation
(iv) proper candling of the eggs
(v) setting eggs at the same time
(vi) selecting eggs of the same size
(vii) holding period for egg before setting should not be more than 14 days (2weeks)
OPERATIONS REQUIRED AFTER HATCHINGActivities or operations normally carried out after hatching of eggs in the hatchery include:
(i) sexing of chicks into male and female
(ii) drying of chicks
(iii) intra-ocular (I) NDV vaccinations
(iv) sorting out abnormal chicks
(v) packing of normal and healthy chicks
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
142. FIELD MACHINES
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION