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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

TYPES OF INCUBATOR


INCUBATORS

Incubators are made in varying sizes and designs. It uses different types of fuel (e.g. oil lamp, electricity, etc) to supply the heat required.

Function of an incubator:

Incubators are machines used for hatching fertilised eggs artificially. It takes 21 days for fertilized eggs of domestic fowl to develop and hatch in incubators.


Types of incubators

include natural draught portable type and forced draught or cabinet type.

Conditions for Incubator to function:

Before fertilised eggs are placed, the incubator should be run for 12-24 hours. For incubators to function properly, they require the following conditions:
(1) Temperature range of 37oC – 39oC
(2) Relative humidity of 50 - 70%; at optimum level being 60%
(3) Adequate ventilation.








COMPONENTS OF AN INCUBATOR

An incubator is made up of a setter and a hatcher. The fertilized eggs are kept in the setter for 18days while for the remaining three days before hatching, the eggs are placed in the hatcher.
The components of an incubator are:
(i) heat source e.g. lantern, heater or electric heater
(ii) control unit, damper or thermostat; it regulates the temperature of the incubator
(iii) heat distribution unit;
(iv) relative humidity mediation unit which can be a basin of water, cotton-wool or humidifiers
(v) felt tray – (to hold eggs and reduce cracking) or egg racks or egg trays;
(vi) thermometer – to detect the degree of hotness or coldness of the machine
(vii) fan or air circulation unit or vent for ventilation
(viii) egg turning device for regular turning of eggs
(ix) insulator, to prevent heat loss


Problems Associated with the Functioning of the Components.

The problems that may lead to malfunction or non-functioning of t components of incubators include:
(i) If it is electrical incubator, power failure and irregular power sup would arise, but if it is kerosene heat incubator, the problem that will arise include running out of kerosene.
(ii) Thermostat: High or low voltage or current.
(iii) Fan: Irregular power supply; over-heating through over-usage; loose nuts of the parts; improper lubrication of the movable parts.
(iv) Thermometer: Problems include: cracking or breakage of the bulb/thermometer; loss of sensitivity.
(v) Ventilation: Blockage of vents.
(vi) Water basin: Leakages; drying up of water contents.
(vii) I n s u I a t o r Malfunctioning of the insulator unit.
(viii) Turning device for egg tray Lubrication of the movable joints or parts; loose nuts.


EFFORTS TO ENSURE UNIFORMITY OF HATCHING OF EGGS IN INCUBATOR

The steps that should be taken to ensure that eggs hatch at about the same time include:
(i) setting eggs uniformly in the tray
(ii) timely and regular turning of eggs;
(iii) ensure suitable environmental condition such as ventilation and relative humidity
(iv) proper handling of the eggs
(v) setting eggs at the same time
(vi) select eggs of the same sizes
(vii) Holding period for eggs before setting should not be more than 14days.








Operations Needed after the Hatching of Eggs in the Hatchery

Activities or operations normally carried out after hatching of eggs in the hatchery include:
(i) sexing of chicks;
(ii) drying of chicks;
(iii) intra-ocular (I) NDV vaccination;
(iv) sorting out abnormal chicks;
(v) Packing normal chicks.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION